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Table 3 Pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gases at the 2-month assessment: factors associated with reduced health-related quality of life and dyspnea 12 months after intensive care unit admission on univariate regression analysis

From: Health-related quality of life of COVID-19 two and 12 months after intensive care unit admission

  All patients
n = 94
12-month EQ-5D-3L
Visual Analog Scale
n = 82
12-month EQ-5D-3L
Time trade-off
n = 86
12-month mMRC dyspnea scale
n = 86
Linear regression coefficient ± SD p Linear regression coefficient ± SD p Linear regression coefficient ± SD p
At two-month assessment        
mMRC dyspnea scale, median (IQR) 1 (0–2)  − 2.39 ± 1.62 0.146  − 0.06 ± 0.03 0.059 0.25 ± 0.09 0.012
EQ-5D-3L, Visual analog scale, median (IQR) 70 (60–85) 0.42 ± 0.10  < 0.001 0.01 ± 0.00 0.001 0.05 ± 0.52 0.917
EQ-5D-3L, time trade-off, median (IQR) 0.80 (0.36–0.91) 15.29 ± 5.60 0.008 0.33 ± 0.10 0.002  − 1.09 ± 0.33 0.002
Six-minute walk test, m, median (IQR) 392 (322–484) 0.01 ± 0.02 0.952 0.0004 ± 0.0004 0.326  − 0.001 ± 0.001 0.459
Normalized six-minute walk test, %, median (IQR) 58 (47–69) % 0.09 ± 0.12 0.437 0.004 ± 0.002 0.092  − 0.01 ± 0.01 0.171
Total lung capacitya, % of predicted, median (IQR) 78 (63–89)  − 0.57 ± 0.12 0.632  − 0.001 ± 0.007 0.872  − 0.01 ± 0.01 0.175
Total lung capacitya < 80% of predicted, n (%) 37 (47)  − 2.04 ± 3.86 0.599  − 0.02 ± 0.07 0.799  − 0.32 ± 0.23 0.04
Forced vital capacity, % of predicted, median (IQR) 76 (67–93) 0.02 ± 0.09 0.832 0.002 ± 0.002 0.901  − 0.02 ± 0.01 0.114
Forced vital capacity, < 80% of predicted, n (%) 39 (45) 4.14 ± 3.59 0.253 0.02 ± 0.07 0.736  − 0.47 ± 0.22 0.037
Forced expiratory volume in one second, % of predicted, median (IQR) 77 (67–90) 0.05 ± 0.09 0.572 0.001 ± 0.002 0.704  − 0.01 ± 0.01 0.704
FEV1/FVC, %, median (IQR) 83 (77–87) 0.10 ± 0.19 0.598 0.001 ± 0.004 0.681  − 0.02 ± 0.01 0.681
FEV1/FVC < 70%, n (%) 9 (10)  − 6.31 ± 6.12 0.305  − 0.05 ± 0.12 0.678  − 0.05 ± 0.12 0.678
Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxideb, % of predicted, median (IQR) 56 (45–67) 0.08 ± 0.12 0.528 0.002 ± 0.002 0.433  − 0.01 ± 0.01 0.433
Carbon monoxide transfer coefficientb, % of predicted, median (IQR) 87 (76–96) 0.11 ± 0.11 0.279 0.003 ± 0.002 0.158  − 0.01 ± 0.01 0.158
Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxideb < 80% of predicted, n (%) 54 (69)  − 0.23 ± 4.28 0.958  − 0.01 ± 0.08 0.895 0.03 ± 0.26 0.895
Sniff nasal inspiratory pressurec, % of predicted, median (IQR) 60 (43–82)  − 0.02 ± 0.07 0.818 0.002 ± 0.001 0.909  − 0.002 ± 0.005 0.909
Maximal inspiratory pressured, % of predicted, median (IQR) 78 (59–95)  − 0.04 ± 0.05 0.491 0.001 ± 0.001 0.523  − 0.001 ± 0.004 0.523
Maximal inspiratory pressure < 80% of predicted, n (%) 44 (56)  − 0.24 ± 3.71 0.949 0.05 ± 0.07 0.487  − 0.05 ± 0.07 0.487
PaO2e, mmHg, median (IQR) 91 (82–97) 0.27 ± 0.18 0.140 0.00 6 ± 0.003 0.081  − 0.03 ± 0.01 0.002
PaCO2e, mmHg, median (IQR) 38 (35–40)  − 0.99 ± 0.53 0.065  − 0.01 ± 0.01 0.248 0.06 ± 0.03 0.093
pHe, median (IQR) 7.44 (7.42–7.46) 70.33 ± 69.77 0.318  − 0.15 ± 1.17 0.897  − 4.35 ± 4.17 0.300
SaO2e, %, median (IQR) 97 (96–98) 2.79 ± 1.36 0.044 0.04 ± 0.02 0.105  − 0.28 ± 0.08 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range [IQR]) and categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%)
  2. Health-related quality of life is assessed with the EQ-5D-3L (EuroQol Research Foundation https://euroqol.org). Quality of life time trade-off utility values were calculated using the French value set. Perceived health was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Dyspnea was assessed by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale
  3. mMRC, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced vital capacity
  4. aData available for 78 cases, bData available for 82 cases, cData available for 76 cases, dData available for 81 cases, eData available for 75 cases
  5. The linear regression coefficients represent the average increase or decrease in the variable to be explained when we compare two subjects with explanatory quantitative variables that differ by one unit or when we compare two subjects with explanatory qualitative variables taking the reference value for one of the subjects and another value for the second subject