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Table 3 Outcome and intensive care treatment of patients without frailty (CFS < 5) and disability (ADL 6), patients with either disability (ADL < 6) or frailty (CFS ≥ 5), or both frailty and disability

From: The association of the Activities of Daily Living and the outcome of old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19

  Non-frailty (CFS < 5)/no disability (ADL 6) Frailty (CFS ≥ 5) or disability (ADL < 6) Frailty and disability p-value
Invasive mechanical ventilation 76% (1388) 62% (162) 68% (183)  < 0.001
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation 23% (414) 29% (75) 31% (84) 0.002
Tracheostomy 21% (376) 12% (31) 10% (28)  < 0.001
Vasoactive drugs 72% (1312) 58% (149) 67% (178)  < 0.001
RRT 14% (255) 16% (41) 23% (61)  < 0.001
Life sustaining care withheld 30% (540) 42% (106) 31% (83)  < 0.001
Life sustaining care withdrawn 20% (369) 21% (52) 16% (44) 0.32
ICU mortality 45% (810) 55% (140) 67% (180)  < 0.001
30-day mortality 46% (848) 63% (162) 72% (195)  < 0.001
3-month mortality 52% (945) 68% (176) 78% (210)  < 0.001
  1. ADL Activities of Daily Living, CFS Clinical Frailty Scale, RRT renal replacement therapy, p-value comparing all groups. [Numbers do not add up to 100% due to missing values]