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Table 2 Functional, physiological and CT scan data at 3, 6 and 12 months

From: Result of one-year, prospective follow-up of intensive care unit survivors after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia

  3 months
(N = 85)
6 months
(N = 80)
12 months
(N = 73)
p-value
M3–M6
p-value
M6–M12
p-value
Mixed model
Dyspnea (mMRC scale)       
 Number evaluated 83 (97.6%)a 78 (97.5%)a 73 (100%)    
 0 30 (36.1%) 34 (43.6%) 35 (47.9%) 0.3397 0.1951 NA
 1 39 (47.0%) 32 (41.0%) 34 (46.6%)    
 2 8 (9.6%) 12 (15.4%) 14 (5.5%)    
 3–4 6 (7.2%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)    
Oxygen therapy       
 Ambulatory oxygen therapy 5 (5.9%) 4 (5.0%) 4 (5.5%) NA
 Long-term oxygen therapy 3 (3.5%) 1 (1.3%) 1 (1.4%) 0.3173 1 NA
Lung volumes, spirometry and diffusing capacity      
 FVC (% of pred) 92.0 (80.0–103.6) 99.0 (86.6–112.1) 105.0 (92.0–120.0)  < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
 Altered FVC (Z score FVC < − 1.64) 18 (21.2%) 8 (10.0%) 4 (5.5%) 0.0067 0.1797 NA
 FEV1 (% of pred) 92.0 (81.0–103.2) 99.7 (88.4–115.0) 104.0 (92.0–118.0)  < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
 FEV1/FVC (%) 82.0 (74.0–86.0) 81.5 (74.5–86.0) 81.0 (73.0–85.0) 0.0267 0.0033 0.0275
 FEV1/FVC < 70% 12 (14.1%) 10 (12.5%) 12 (16.4%) 0.5637 0.3173 NA
 DLCO (% of pred) 80.0 (64.0–91.2) 90.9 (79.9–103.8) 98.3 (88.4–106.5)  < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
 Altered DLCO (Z score DLCO < − 1.64) 36 (42.4%) 12 (15.4%) 8 (11.0%)  < 0.0001 0.3173 NA
 KCO (% of pred) 88.8 (76.5–104.0) 98.3 (86.0–109.5) 102.5 (94.3–114.4)  < 0.0001  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
Respiratory muscle strength       
 MIP (% of pred) 74.5 (54–95) 89 (70–105) 99 (77–122)  < 0.0001 0.0002  < 0.0001
 MEP (% of pred) 50 (40–59) 54 (45–68) 57 (48–69) 0.0095 0.2343 0.0079
 SNIP (% of pred) 84 (68–99) 87 (73–102) 94 (82–120)b 0.0376  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
 FVC in supine position (% of pred) 92 (76.5–104) 98 (84–108) 100 (86.5–112.5)§  < 0.0001 0.0003  < 0.0001
 Change in FVC in supine position (%) − 4 ((− 7)–(− 1.5)) − 4 ((− 8)–(− 2)) − 4 ((− 8)–(− 2))c 0.4697 0.5732 0.4534
Blood gas       
 PaO2 (kPa) 11.1 (10.2–12.3) 10.7 (10.1–11.6) 0.0784
 PaO2 < 9.3 kPa 11 (12.9%) 5 (6.8%) NA
 PaCO2 (kPa) 4.8 (4.5–5.1) 4.9 (4.6–5.2) 0.1140
6MWT       
 Number evaluated 79 (92.9%)d 76 (95.0%)f 66 (90.4%)ǁ  
 Walked distance (m) 481 (400–564) 549.5 (472.5–600.0) 542 (495–600)  < 0.0001 0.6211  < 0.0001
 Walked distance < theoretical distance (%) 50 (63.3%) 26 (34.2%) 18 (27.3%)  < 0.0001 0.3938 NA
 Loss of 4% or more of SpO2 45 (57.0%) 32 (42.1%) 25 (37.9%) 0.1172 0.2971 NA
 SpO2 < 88% at the end of the test 9 (11.4%) 5 (6.6%) 4 (6.1%) 0.1797 1 NA
 Dyspnea on Borg scale before exercise 0 (0–2) 0 (0–1) 0.5 (0–2) 0.0323 0.0025 0.4059
 Dyspnea on Borg scale after exercise 4 (2–6) 4 (3–6) 4 (3–6) 0.2528 0.4482 0.2724
 Fatigue on Borg scale before exercise 0 (0–3) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–2) 0.0010 0.3471 0.2414
 Fatigue on Borg scale after exercise 3 (1–5) 3 (0–3.5) 2 (0–4) 0.0004 0.7865 0.0646
Respiratory polygraphy       
 Number evaluated 68 (80.0%)g  
 Sleep apnea syndrome (AHI ≥ 5) 62 (91.2%)      
 Central events (%) 5.2 (0.6–17.9)  
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale       
 Anxiety ≥ 11 7 (8.2%) 7 (8.8%) 7 (9.6%) 0.7055 1 NA
 Depression ≥ 11 3 (3.5%) 4 (5.0%) 3 (4.1%) 0.6547 1 NA
CT scan       
 Number evaluated 80 (94.1%)h 64 (90.1%)i  
 Abnormal scan 77 (96.3%) 60 (93.8%)  
  Reticulations 69 (89.6%) 51 (85.0%)  
   1–25% 52 (75.4%) 42 (82.4%)  
   26–50% 14 (20.3%) 9 (17.6%)  
   51–75% 3 (4.3%) 0 (0.0%)  
  Traction bronchiectases 53 (68.8%) 44 (73.3%)  
   1–25% 43 (81.1%) 42 (95.5%)  
   26–50% 10 (18.9%) 2 (4.5%)  
  Honeycombing 6 (7.8%) 3 (5.0%)  
   1–25% 4 (66.7%) 3 (100%)  
   26–50% 2 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%)  
  Ground-glass opacities 56 (72.7%) 32 (53.3%)  
   1–25% 42 (75.0%) 30 (93.8%)  
   26–50% 10 (17.9%) 1 (3.1%)  
   51–75% 4 (7.1%) 1 (3.1%)  
  Emphysema 14 (18.2%) 12 (20.0%)  
   1–25% 6 (42.9%) 5 (41.7%)  
   26–50% 3 (21.4%) 3 (25.0%)  
   51–75% 1 (7.1%) 2 (16.7%)  
   > 75% 4 (28.6%) 2 (16.7%)  
Cardiorespiratory stress test      
 Number evaluated 61 (83.6%)j    
 Pmax (watts) 123 (103–153)  
 VO2 peak (% of pred) 99 (88–106)  
  1. Values are presented as medians (interquartile ranges) or number of patients (percentages)
  2. ICU intensive care unit, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1  forced expiratory volume in 1 s, DLCO  diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, FeNO  fractional exhaled nitric oxide, MIP  maximal inspiratory pressure, MEP maximal expiratory pressure, SNIP  sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, 6MWT  six-minute-walk test, CT scan  computerized tomography scan
  3. aDyspnea could not be evaluated for the two same patients at 3 and 6 months because they were not yet able to walk
  4. bSNIP could not be evaluated for 27 patients for technical issue
  5. c1 patient felt faint with head trauma during respiratory evaluation and was unable to continue the examinations
  6. d6 patients were not able to perform the 6MWT at 3 months
  7. e4 patients were not able to perform the 6MWT at 6 months
  8. f7 patients were not able to perform the 6MWT at 12 months
  9. gPolygraph was not available for 11 patients and 6 patients had inoperable polygraphs
  10. h5 patients could not get a CT scan for technical issue
  11. i8 patients had a Chest-X Ray and 1 patient could not get a CT scan for technical issue
  12. j12 patients were not able to perform the cardiorespiratory stress test at 12 months