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Table 2 Factors associated with the occurrence of VAP

From: Clinical impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

  Patients with VAP
(n = 176)
Patients without VAP
(n = 160)
P value
Male sex 141 (80.1) 106 (66.2) 0.004
Age, years 66 (57–73) 68 (57–74) 0.38
BMI, kg m−2 28.5 (25.0–31.6) 28.5 (24.9–33.1) 0.64
Past or current smoking 70 (39.8) 62 (38.7) 0.91
Chronic diseases    
 Diabetes mellitus
 COPD
 Respiratory, others
 Cardiac
 Hepatic
 Renal
 Immune deficiency
 Solid or haematological malignancy
 Others
49 (27.8)
19 (10.8)
28 (15.9)
55 (31.2)
17 (9.7)
11 (6.2)
20 (11.4)
11 (6.2)
9 (5.1)
46 (28.7)
21 (13.1)
17 (10.6)
44 (27.5)
12 (7.5)
17 (10.6)
33 (20.6)
23 (14.4)
12 (7.5)
0.90
0.61
0.20
0.47
0.56
0.17
0.02
0.02
0.38
ARDS aetiology    
 COVID-19
 Other causes
69 (39.2)
107 (60.8)
32 (20.0)
128 (80.0)
0.0001
SAPS 2 at ICU admission 49 (38–66) 51 (38–67) 0.60
SOFA score at ICU admission 8 (5–10) 8 (6–11) 0.11
Lymphocyte count, mm−3    
 ICU admission
 Day 7
 Day 14
760 (500–1220)
775 (487–1202)
970 (637–1407)
705 (400–1152)
810 (520–1210)
1000 (620–1505)
0.18
0.78
0.73
ARDS classification (Berlin definition)a    
 Mild
 Moderate
 Severe
23 (13.1)
57 (32.4)
96 (54.5)
27 (16.9)
59 (36.9)
74 (46.2)
0.29
ARDS-targeted therapies    
Prone positioning
Number of days
Neuromuscular blocking agents
92 (52.3)
7 (2–13)
128 (72.7)
35 (21.9)
2 (1–6)
81 (50.6)
 < 0.0001
0.0006
 < 0.0001
Corticosteroids (all pooled)b 81 (46.0) 88 (55.0) 0.10
Proton pump inhibitorb 161 (91.5) 143 (89.4) 0.58
Intra-hospital transportb 107 (60.8) 77 (48.1) 0.02
Life-sustaining therapies    
 Invasive MV duration, overall, days
Vasopressors
 Renal replacement therapy
 VA-ECMO
 VV-ECMO
17 (12–29)
157 (89.2)
52 (29.5)
4 (2.3)
13 (7.4)
7 (5–10)
123 (76.9)
33 (20.6)
3 (1.9)
2 (1.2)
 < 0.0001
0.003
0.08
1
0.007
  1. Data are expressed as number (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, SAPS 2 simplified acute physiology score 2, SOFA sepsis-related organ failure assessment, MV mechanical ventilation, VA/VV-ECMO veno-arterial/veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  3. aFirst day with ARDS criteria
  4. bBefore the occurrence of first ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), or during the whole ICU stay in patients without VAP