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Table 3 Main outcome measures

From: Clinical impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

Outcome measures All patients with ARDS Patients with COVID-19-related ARDS Patients with ARDS from other causes
  VAP
(n = 176)
No VAP
(n = 160)
Difference
(95% CI)
VAP
(n = 69)
No VAP
(n = 32)
Difference
(95% CI)
VAP
(n = 107)
No VAP
(n = 128)
Difference
(95% CI)
MV duration, days 17 (12–29) 7 (5–10) 10 (8; 12) 22 (17–33) 8 (7–13) 14 (10; 17.5) 15 (9–24) 7 (5–10) 8 (6; 10)
Ventilator-free days at day 281
 All patients
 ICU survivors
0 (0–12)
11 (0–15)
19 (0–22)
21 (18–23)
− 19 (− 20; − 13.5)
− 10 (− 13; − 9)
2 (0–11) b
7 (0–11.5)
19 (11–21)
20 (16.5–21)
− 17 (− 20; − 9.5)
− 13 (− 17; − 9)
0 (0–14) b
12 (2–17)
19 (0–22)
21 (19–23)
− 19 (− 20; − 10)
− 9 (− 11; − 6)
Vasopressor-free days at day 28 a 18 (0–24) 23 (0–27) − 5 (− 9; − 2) 18 (10–25) 25 (20.5–28) − 7 (− 11; − 1) 16 (0–24) 23 (0–26) − 7 (− 15; − 2)
ICU LOS, days a 23 (16–36) 10 (8–14) 13 (9; 15) 27 (19–41) 11 (10–16) 15 (11.5; 21.5) 19 (13–28) 10 (8–14) 9 (7; 13)
Hospital LOS, days a 32 (21–48) 21 (12–31) 11.5 (7.5; 17.5) 37 (25–50) 21 (16–28) 15.5 (11; 24) 29 (17–47) 20 (11–34) 8.5 (2; 15)
In-ICU mortality 59 (33.5) 43 (26.9) 6.6 (− 3.2; 16.2) 18 (26.1) 6 (18.7) 7.3 (− 11.5; 22.4) 41 (38.3) 37 (28.9) 9.4 (− 2.6; 21.3)
In-hospital mortality 63 (35.8) 45 (28.1) 7.7 (− 2.3; 17.4) 18 (26.1) 6 (18.7) 7.3 (− 11.5; 22.4) 45 (42.1) 39 (30.5) 11.6 (− 0.7; 23.5)
Mortality at day 90 c 63 (35.8) 48 (30.0) 5.8 (− 4.3; 15.6) 18 (26.1) 6 (18.7) 7.3 (− 11.5; 22.4) 45 (42.1) 42 (32.8) 9.2 (− 3.1; 21.3)
  1. Data are expressed as number (%) or median (interquartile range), with median difference for continuous variable and absolute risk difference for ICU and in-hospital mortality rates
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, CI confidence interval, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, MV mechanical ventilation, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay
  3. aP < 0.001 for the comparison between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients and/or according to whether patients developed VAP within the first 28 days or not
  4. bMedian difference (95% CI), 2 (− 8; 6) days
  5. cNine patients were lost to follow-up at day 90 (5 patients with VAP and 4 patients without VAP)