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Table 1 Patients characteristics at inclusion

From: Severe but reversible impaired diaphragm function in septic mechanically ventilated patients

  Patients with sepsis
n = 51
Patients without sepsis
n = 41
p
Age, years 64 (53–73) 59 (52–70) 0.323
Male sex, n (%) 31 (61) 38 (62) 0.985
Body mass index, kg m−2 24 (21–28) 24 (22–26) 0.998
SAPS2 58 (46–70) 52 (36–64) 0.292
SOFA 10 (6–12) 9 (6–11) 0.351
Comorbidities, n (%)    
 Active smoking 23 (45) 22 (54) 0.414
 COPD 10 (20) 11 (27) 0.412
 Diabetes mellitus 15 (29) 10 (24) 0.591
 Cirrhosis 11 (22) 6 (15) 0.394
Primary reason for ventilation    
 Acute respiratory failure, n (%) 38 (75) 16 (39)  < 0.001
 Pneumonia 37 (73) 0 (0)  < 0.001
 Hypercapnic ACRF 0 (0) 6 (15) 0.006
 Acute lung edema 0 (0) 2 (5) 0.196
 Other 1 (2) 8 (20) 0.009
 Shock, n (%) 7 (14) 6 (15) 0.985
 Septic shock 7 (14) 0 (0) 0.016
 Cardiogenic shock 0 (0) 2 (5) 0.110
 Other 0 (0) 4 (10) 0.022
 Cardiac arrest, n (%) 1 (2) 6 (15) 0.023
 Coma, n (%) 5 (10) 13 (32) 0.008
 Stroke 1 (2) 5 (12) 0.048
 Hepatic encephalopathy 2 (4) 5 (12) 0.136
 Other 2 (4) 3 (7) 0.475
Clinical variables    
 Temperature > 38° or < 36° 23 (45) 18 (44) 0.909
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 78 (70–94) 77 (71–86) 0.780
 Ptr,stim, cmH2O 6.3 (4.9–8.7) 9.8 (7–14.2) 0.004
 Diaphragm dysfunction, n (%) 43 (84) 21 (51)  < 0.001
 End-expiratory diaphragm thickness, mm 2.3 (1.8–2.7)a 2.1 (1.8–2.5)b 0.629
Biological variables    
 White blood cells count, 10−9/l 12.3 (7.5–17.7) 11.6 (10–15.4) 0.845
 PCT, ng/ml 7.5 (1.5–41) 1 (0.3–3.1)  < 0.001
 Blood lactate, mmol l−1 2 (1.2–3) 2 (1.6–3) 0.258
 PaO2/FiO2 201 (144–300) 248 (213–313) 0.013
Sedation    
 Hypnotics (propofol or midazolam), n (%) 40 (100)c 37 (100) d 1.000
 Sufentanyl, n (%) 35 (88) c 32 (86) d 1.000
Organ support    
 Vasopressors, n (%) 40 (78) 26 (63) 0.112
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%) and continuous variables as median (interquartile range)
  2. SOFA: Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment; SAPS 2: New Simplified Acute Physiology Score; ACRF: acute-on-chronic respiratory failure; Ptr,stim: endotracheal tube pressure induced by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation during airway occlusion; PCT: procalcitonin; PaO2/FiO2: partial arterial oxygen tension on inspired oxygen fraction ratio
  3. a Data available for 31/51 patients, b data available for 27/41 patients
  4. c Data available for 40/51 patients, d data available for 37/41 patients