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Table 1 Patient characteristics at ICU admission with or without phlebitis

From: Risk factors for peripheral intravascular catheter-related phlebitis in critically ill patients: analysis of 3429 catheters from 23 Japanese intensive care units

Variables All patients
N = 1359
Phlebitis ( +)
N = 105
(7.7%)
Phlebitis (–)
N = 1254
(92.3%)
p value
Age, mean (SD), years 66.4 (15.8) 70.9 (13.2) 66.1 (16.0) 0.003
Gender, male (n, %) 816 (60.0%) 63 (60.0%) 753 (60.1%) 0.99
Body height, mean (SD), cma 161 (9.9) 161 (9.8) 161 (9.9) 0.99
Body weight, mean (SD), kgb 59.1 (14.2) 57.9 (14.0) 59.2 (14.2) 0.37
BMI, mean (SD)a 22.8 (4.3) 22.3 (4.3) 22.8 (4.3) 0.24
APACHE II, mean (SD) 14.8 (7.2) 16.9 (6.3) 14.7 (7.2) 0.003
SAPS II, mean (SD) 32.2 (18.5) 37.3 (14.6) 31.7 (18.7) 0.003
SOFA, mean (SD) 4.8 (3.4) 5.6 (3.3) 4.7 (3.4) 0.007
Charlson comorbidity index, mean (SD) 4.3 (2.6) 4.5 (2.5) 4.3 (2.6) 0.38
ICU admission from (n, %)     
 Operation room 979 (72.0%) 58 (55.2%) 921 (73.5%)  < 0.0001
 Emergency room 256 (18.8%) 29 (12.4%) 227 (18.1%) 0.02
 General ward 97 (7.1%) 13 (12.4%) 84 (6.7%) 0.03
 Outpatients 11 (0.8%) 2 (1.9%) 9 (0.7%) 0.19
 Transfer from other hospital 16 (1.2%) 3 (2.9%) 13 (1.0%) 0.10
Type of admission to ICU (n, %)     
 Elective surgical 802 (59.0%) 37 (35.2%) 765 (61.0%)  < 0.0001
 Emergency surgical 177 (13.0%) 21 (20.0%) 156 (12.4%) 0.03
 Medical 380 (28.0%) 47 (44.8%) 333 (26.6%)  < 0.0001
ICU admission category (n, %)     
 Cardiology 438 (32.2%) 35 (33.3%) 403 (32.1%) 0.80
 Pulmonary 171 (12.6%) 15 (14.3%) 156 (12.4%) 0.58
 Gastrointestinal 295 (21.7%) 13 (12.4%) 282 (22.5%) 0.02
 Neurology 127 (9.3%) 17 (16.2%) 110 (8.8%) 0.01
 Trauma 47 (3.5%) 4 (3.8%) 43 (3.4%) 0.84
 Urology 44 (3.2%) 3 (2.9%) 41 (3.3%) 0.82
 Gynecology 37 (2.7%) 1 (1.0%) 36 (2.9%) 0.25
 Skin/tissue 31 (2.3%) 1 (1.0%) 30 (2.4%) 0.34
 Others 133 (9.8%) 12 (11.4%) 121 (9.7%) 0.56
Sepsis at ICU admission (n, %)     
 Sepsis 48 (3.5%) 7 (6.7%) 41 (3.3%) 0.07
 Septic shock 67 (4.9%) 8 (7.6%) 59 (4.8%) 0.19
Mechanical ventilation within 24 h after admission to ICU (n, %) c)     
 Non-invasive ventilation 55 (4.1%) 6 (5.8%) 49 (4.0%) 0.37
 Invasive ventilation 343 (25.4%) 43 (41.8%) 300 (24.4%) 0.0001
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology AND Chronic Health Evaluation, BMI body mass index, ICU intensive care unit, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, PIVC peripheral intravenous catheter, SD standard deviation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  2. Missing data: a) n = 2, b) missing data: n = 1, c) missing data: n = 27