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Table 2 All PIVC characteristics during insertion with or without phlebitis

From: Risk factors for peripheral intravascular catheter-related phlebitis in critically ill patients: analysis of 3429 catheters from 23 Japanese intensive care units

Variables All catheter
N = 3429
Phlebitis ( +)
N = 313
Phlebitis (−)
N = 3116
P value
Catheter inserted by (n, %)a     
 Doctor 287/2663 (10.8%) 21/246 (8.0%) 266/2417 (11.0%) 0.13
 Nurse 2393/2663 (89.9%) 243/246 (92.0%) 2150/2417 (89.0%) 0.12
 Medical technologist 1/2663 (0.04%) 0/246 (0%) 1/2417 (0.04%) 0.74
Inserted site (n, %)     
 Upper arm 356/3429 (10.4%) 22/313 (7.0%) 334/3116 (10.7%) 0.04
 Forearm 1849/3429 (53.9%) 190/313 (60.7%) 1659/3116 (53.2%) 0.01
 Elbow 163/3429 (4.8%) 15/313 (4.8%) 148/3116 (4.8%) 0.97
 Wrist 162/3429 (4.7%) 11/313 (3.5%) 151/3116 (4.9%) 0.29
 Hand 507/3429 (14.8%) 33/313 (10.5%) 474/3116 (15.2%) 0.03
 Lower leg 225/3429 (6.6%) 23/313 (7.4%) 202/3116 (6.5%) 0.55
 Dorsal foot 137/3429 (4.0%) 17/313 (5.4%) 120/3116 (3.9%) 0.17
 Others 30/3429 (0.9%) 2/313 (0.6%) 28/3116 (0.9%) 0.46
Catheter material     
 PEU-Vialon* 1087/3116 (31.7%) 83/313 (26.5%) 1004/3116 (32.2%) 0.04
 Polyurethane 978/3116 (28.5%) 109/313 (34.8%) 869/3116 (27.9%) 0.01
 Polyethylene 0/3116 (0%) 0/313 (0%) 0/3116 (0%)
 Tetrafluoroethylene 1292/3116 (37.7%) 111/313 (35.5%) 1181/3116 (37.9%) 0.40
 Others 72/3116 (2.1%) 10/313 (3.2%) 62/3116 (2.0%) 0.16
Catheter gauge (n, %)b     
 14G 1/3368 (0.03%) 0/308 (0%) 1/3060 (0.03%) 0.75
 16G 74/3368 (2.2%) 9/308 (2.9%) 65/3060 (2.1%) 0.36
 18G 89/3368 (2.6%) 8/308 (2.6%) 81/3060 (2.7%) 0.96
 20G 888/3368 (26.4%) 56/308 (18.2%) 832/3060 (27.2%)  < 0.01
 22G 2254/3368 (66.9%) 226/308 (73.4%) 2028/3060 (66.3%) 0.01
 24G 62/3368 (1.8%) 9/308 (2.9%) 53/3060 (1.7%) 0.14
Antiseptic solution before catheterization (n, %)c     
 None 8/2665 (0.3%) 1/260 (0.3%) 7/2405 (0.3%) 0.79
 Alcohol 2599/2665 (97.5%) 254/260 (97.7%) 2345/240 (97.5%) 0.85
 0.2% chlorhexidine alcohol 21/2665 (0.8%) 1/260 (0.3%) 20/2405 (0.8%) 0.44
 0.5% chlorhexidine alcohol 15/2665 (0.6%) 3/260 (1.2%) 12/2405 (0.5%) 0.18
 1.0% chlorhexidine alcohol 17/2665 (0.6%) 0/260 (0%) 17/2405 (0.7%) 0.17
 10% povidone iodine 2/2665 (0.08%) 0/260 (0%) 2/2405 (0.08%) 0.64
 Other 3/2665 (0.1%) 1/260 (0.3%) 2/2405 (0.08%) 0.17
Use of ultrasonography (n, %)d 58/2636 (2.2%) 4/260 (1.6%) 54/2376 (2.3%) 0.44
Number of trials for insertion (n, %)e     
 1 2119/2619 (80.9%) 207/257 (80.6%) 1912/2362 (81.0%) 0.88
 2 313/2619 (12.0%) 27/257 (10.5%) 286/2362 (12.1%) 0.45
 3 130/2619 (5.0%) 18/257 (7.0%) 112/2362 (4.7%) 0.11
 4 26/2619 (1.0%) 1/257 (0.4%) 25/2362 (1.1%) 0.30
 5 15/2619 (0.6%) 1/257 (0.4%) 14/2362 (0.6%) 0.68
 ≥6 16/2619 (0.6%) 3/257 (1.2%) 13/2362 (0.6%) 0.23
Difficulties with the insertions (n, %)f     
 Easy 1232/2594 (47.5%) 113/253 (44.7%) 1119/2341 (47.8%) 0.34
 Slightly easy 772/2594 (29.8%) 76/253 (30.0%) 696/2341 (29.7%) 0.92
 Slightly difficult 456/2594 (17.6%) 49/253 (19.4%) 407/2341 (17.4%) 0.43
 Difficult 134/2594 (5.2%) 15/253 (5.9%) 119/2341 (5.1%) 0.56
Glove (n, %)g     
 Sterile 19/2630 (0.7%) 0/259 (0%) 19/2371 (0.8%) 0.15
 Non-sterile 2496/2630 (94.9%) 244/259 (94.2%) 2252/2371 (95.0%) 0.59
 Nothing 115/2630 (4.4%) 15/259 (5.8%) 100/2371 (4.2%) 0.24
Dressing (n, %)h     
 Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing chrolehexidne 0/3396 (0%) 0/307 (0%) 0/3089 (0%) -
 Sterile polyurethane dressing 3327/3396 (98.0%) 298/307 (97.1%) 3029/3089 (98.1%) 0.24
 Non-sterile polyurethane dressing polyuretane 60/3396 (1.8%) 8/307 (2.6%) 52/3089 (1.7%) 0.24
 Gauze dressing 1/3396 (0.03%) 0/307 (0%) 1/3089 (0.03%) 0.75
 Tape dressing 8/3396 (0.2%) 1/307 (0.3%) 7/3089 (0.2%) 0.73
Any infection during catheter dwell (n, %) 803/3429 (23.4%) 90/313 (28.8%) 713/3116 (22.9%) 0.02
Duration of catheter dwell, median (IQR), hour 46.2 (21.3–82.9) 37.0 (19.2–57.6) 44.8 (21.0–81.5)  < 0.01
  1. ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, PIVC peripheral intravenous catheter
  2. ER emergency room, OR operation room
  3. *PEU-Vialon: polyetherurethane without leachable additives missing data: a) n = 699, b) missing data: n = 56, c) missing data: n = 711, d) missing data: n = 740, e) missing data: n = 754, f) missing data: n = 775, g) missing data: n = 745, h) missing data: n = 30