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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable analysis for phlebitis using marginal Cox regression analysis for phlebitis

From: Risk factors for peripheral intravascular catheter-related phlebitis in critically ill patients: analysis of 3429 catheters from 23 Japanese intensive care units

Variables Univariable analysis
N = 3429
Phlebitis: 313 (9.1%)
Multivariable analysis
N = 2460
Phlebitis: 247 (10.0%)
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
ICU characteristics
 Drug administration standardization 0.36 (0.20–0.66) 0.0009 0.35 (0.17–0.76) 0.007
 Education on venous catheter management for nurses 1.29 (1.03–1.63) 0.03 1.15 (0.86–1.54) 0.35
Patient characteristics
 Age 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 0.15 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.28
 Gender, male 0.69 (0.55–0.86) 0.0009 0.85 (0.64–1.12) 0.24
 BMI     
  16–22 Ref. - Ref. -
  ≤15 1.14 (0.45–2.90) 0.78 1.18 (0.60–2.33) 0.62
  23–29 0.95 (0.62–1.46) 0.83 0.86 (0.65–1.14) 0.29
  30≤ 0.58 (0.14–2.38) 0.45 0.43 (0.20–0.95) 0.04
 APACHE II     
  16–25 Ref. Ref.
  ≤15 1.09 (0.85–1.39) 0.49 1.07 (0.79–1.45) 0.65
  25 <  0.77 (0.56–1.05) 0.10 0.70 (0.48–1.01) 0.06
Catheter characteristics     
 Catheter inserted by (n,%)     
  Nurse Ref. Ref.
  Doctor 0.55 (0.35–0.86) 0.009 0.55 (0.32–0.94) 0.03
 Number of trials for insertion (n,%)     
  1 Ref. Ref.
  2 0.90 (0.60–1.34) 0.59 1.01 (0.67–1.53) 0.95
  3 1.44 (0.89–2.32) 0.14 1.35 (0.81–2.24) 0.25
  ≥4 0.84 (0.35–2.04) 0.70 1.34 (0.54–3.33) 0.53
 Use of ultrasonography 0.51 (0.19–1.38) 0.19 0.78 (0.24–2.56) 0.68
 Inserted site     
  Forearm Ref.   Ref.  
  Upper arm 0.61 (0.39–0.95) 0.03 0.52 (0.32–0.85) 0.009
  Elbow 0.84 (0.50–1.43) 0.53 0.95 (0.50–1.79) 0.87
  Wrist 0.70 (0.38–1.28) 0.24 0.56 (0.26–1.21) 0.14
  Hand 0.58 (0.40–0.84) 0.004 0.67 (0.43–1.04) 0.08
  Lower leg 0.87 (0.56–1.34) 0.52 0.74 (0.46–1.21) 0.23
  Dorsal foot 0.96 (0.58–1.57) 0.86 0.95 (0.55–1.66) 0.87
 Catheter size     
  22–24G Ref.   Ref.  
  ≥18G 0.99 (0.60–1.61) 0.96 1.97 (0.68–5.77) 0.21
  20G 0.59 (0.44–0.79) 0.0004 0.75 (0.52–1.08) 0.12
 Dressing     
  Sterile dressing Ref.   Ref.  
  Non-sterile dressing 1.36 (0.70–2.64) 0.36 0.90 (0.28–2.89) 0.86
 Catheter material     
  Polyurethane Ref.   Ref.  
  PEU-Vialon* 0.61 (0.46–0.81) 0.0007 0.70 (0.49–1.02) 0.06
  Tetrafluoroethylene 0.84 (0.64–1.09) 0.18 0.99 (0.71–1.38) 0.95
  Others 1.37 (0.72–2.62) 0.34 0.94 (0.21–4.16) 0.93
  Infection during catheter dwell 1.10 (0.86–1.40) 0.47 1.36 (0.99–1.85) 0.06
Drug characteristics
 Fentanyl (n, %) 0.89 (0.65–1.21) 0.45 0.81 (0.54–1.21) 0.29
 Heparin 0.62 (0.42–0.92) 0.02 0.65 (0.40–1.07) 0.09
 Fat 1.89 (1.04–3.41) 0.04 0.67 (0.40–1.10) 0.11
 Nicardipine 1.97 (1.46–2.65)  < 0.0001 1.85 (1.29–2.66) 0.0008
 Dexmedetomidine 1.16 (0.83–1.61) 0.38 1.08 (0.72–1.63) 0.70
 Ampicillin/sulbactam 1.00 (0.63–1.57) 0.99 0.79 (0.47–1.31) 0.36
 Albumin 0.87 (0.44–1.71) 0.68 1.36 (0.82–2.23) 0.23
 Paracetamol 0.63 (0.34–1.18) 0.15 0.69 (0.33–1.46) 0.33
 Potassium 1.62 (1.08–2.42) 0.02 1.32 (0.79–2.21) 0.30
 Meropenem 0.76 (0.46–1.26) 0.28 0.99 (0.52–1.87) 0.96
 Steroid 0.62 (0.32–1.20) 0.16 0.68 (0.32–1.43) 0.31
 Ceftriaxone 0.88 (0.51–1.54) 0.66 0.69 (0.37–1.31) 0.26
 Vancomycin 0.42 (0.20–0.87) 0.02 0.43 (0.18–1.03) 0.06
 Magnesium 0.98 (0.54–1.79) 0.95 0.68 (0.27–1.69) 0.40
 PPN 0.90 (0.48–1.69) 0.74 0.78 (0.37–1.62) 0.50
 Phosphorus 1.30 (0.73–2.31) 0.38 1.11 (0.53–2.33) 0.79
 Noradrenaline 2.54 (1.60–4.04)  < 0.0001 2.42 (1.40–4.20) 0.002
 Carperitide 1.13 (0.64–2.02) 0.67 0.93 (0.46–1.84) 0.83
 Midazolam 1.63 (0.92–2.91) 0.10 1.50 (0.72–3.11) 0.28
 Nitroglycerin 0.73 (0.32–1.63) 0.44 0.22 (0.05–0.92) 0.04
 Dobutamine 1.54 (0.73–3.26) 0.26 1.14 (0.48–2.68) 0.77
 Cefmetazole 1.20 (0.45–3.22) 0.72 0.92 (0.22–3.82) 0.90
 Amiodarone 2.34 (1.21–4.55) 0.01 3.67 (1.75–7.71) 0.0006
 Cefepime 0.58 (0.22–1.56) 0.28 0.70 (0.25–1.96) 0.49
 Levetiracetam 1.54 (0.21–11.1) 0.67 5.65 (2.80–11.4)  < 0.0001
 Landiolol 0.75 (0.28–2.00) 0.56 0.73 (0.23–2.38) 0.61
  1. Akaike’s information criterion, 3476.5
  2. APACHE Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit, HR hazard ratio, PPN peripheral parenteral nutrition