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Table 3 Univariate analysis of predictors associated with favorable clinical outcome in 132 patients with VAP

From: Low-dose intravenous plus inhaled versus intravenous polymyxin B for the treatment of extensive drug-resistant Gram-negative ventilator-associated pneumonia in the critical illnesses: a multi-center matched case–control study

  Unfavorable clinical outcome(n = 47) Favorable clinical outcome(n = 85) p value OR 95% CI
Age, mean years ± SD 68 ± 17 63 ± 17 0.092 0.98 0.96–1.00
Sex, n (%) 37(78.7) 66(77.6) 0.886 0.94 0.40–2.23
Etiology, n (%)  
 Acute respiratory failure 19(40.4) 35(41.2) 0.933 1.02 0.66–1.57
 Multiple trauma 11(23.4) 16(18.8) 0.532 0.80 0.41–1.59
 Postoperative 9(19.1) 21(24.7) 0.466 1.29 0.64–2.58
 Acute pancreatitis 5(10.6) 7(8.2) 0.646 0.77 0.26–2.30
 Others 3(6.4) 6(7.1) 0.883 1.11 0.29–4.22
Cause of ICU admission, n (%)
 Medical 27(57.4) 46(54.1) 0.713 0.87 0.43–1.79
 Surgical 20(42.6) 39(45.9) 0.811 1.09 0.53–2.24
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Cardiovascular disease 23(48.9) 27(31.8) 0.053 0.49 0.23–1.01
 Cerebrovascular disease 13(27.7) 21(24.7) 0.710 0.86 0.38–1.92
 Chronic pulmonary disease 7(14.9) 8(9.4) 0.346 0.59 0.20–1.76
 Chronic liver disease 3(6.4) 2(2.4) 0.264 0.35 0.06–2.20
 Diabetes mellitus 9(19.1) 12(14.1) 0.451 0.69 0.27–1.79
 Chronic kidney disease 10(21.3) 10(11.8) 0.150 0.49 0.19–1.29
 Solid tumor 6(12.8) 5(5.9) 0.180 0.43 0.12–1.48
 Hematological malignancies 3(6.4) 4(4.7) 0.682 0.72 0.16–3.38
 Neutropenia 2(4.3) 2(2.4) 0.547 0.54 0.07–3.98
 HIV 1(2.1) 0(0.0)    
 Charlson comorbidity index 2 ± 2 2 ± 2 0.200 0.88 0.73–1.07
 Immunosuppressive status, n (%) 10(21.3) 10(11.8) 0.150 0.49 0.19–1.29
Responsible pathogens, n (%)
 XDR Escherichia coli 2(4.3) 2(2.4) 0.936 0.54 0.07–3.98
 XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae 24(51.1) 39(45.9) 0.568 1.03 0.50–2.13
 XDR Acinetobacter baumannii 17(36.2) 36(42.4) 0.488 1.10 0.54–2.25
 XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(8.5) 8(9.4) 1.000 1.65 0.64–4.26
 Combination of other antibiotics 28(59.6) 49(57.6) 0.830 0.92 0.45–1.91
Severity of disease
 SOFA score, median (IQR) 9(6, 13) 6(5, 10) 0.006 0.88 0.81–0.97
 APACHE II score, median (IQR) 20(16, 24) 18(14, 23) 0.348 0.97 0.92–1.03
 Bacteremia, n (%) 9(19.1) 17(20.0) 0.906 1.06 0.43–2.60
 Septic shock, n (%) 37(78.7) 37(43.5) 0.002 0.30 0.14–0.63
 Daily dose of Intravenous polymyxin B, mg/kg, median (IQR) 1.0(1.0, 2.0) 1.0(50, 1.5) 0.015 0.98 0.96–1.00
 Frequency of polymyxin B, median (IQR) 2(2,2) 2(2,2) 1
 Duration of polymyxin B therapy, mean days ± SD 11 ± 9 11 ± 7 0.907 1.00 0.95–1.04
 History of antibiotics within 7 days, n (%) 41(87.2) 72(84.7) 0.692 0.81 0.29–2.29
 Treatment with IH + IV polymyxin B, n (%) 34(77.3) 10(22.7) 0.031 2.44 1.09–5.56
 History of glucocorticoid within 7 days, n (%) 14(29.8) 27(31.8) 0.814 1.10 0.51–2.38
 Length of hospitalization, median (IQR) 25(15, 40) 37(23, 60) 0.039
 Length of ICU stay, median (IQR) 21(10, 33) 30(17, 48) 0.138
 Duration of mechanical ventilation, median (IQR) 20(13, 30) 16(9, 30) 0.827
In-hospital mortality
 All-cause 28(59.6) 24(28.2) 0.01   
 VAP-related 27(57.4) 15(17.6) 0.001   
 28-day mortality 20(42.6) 9(10.6) 0.001