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Table 3 Ventilation data, sedation, opioids, NMBA use and tracheostomy data

From: Early prediction of hospital outcomes in patients tracheostomized for complex mechanical ventilation weaning

  Study population Favourable outcome Poor outcome  
  N = 80* N = 50* N = 30* p value#
Ventilation data between intubation and tracheostomy    
 Percentage of mechanical ventilation days with more than 12 h with:     
  VAC, n. (%) 33.3% [18–59%] 39.3% [22–60%] 28.7% [10–48%] 0.16
  PAC, n. (%) 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0.85
  PSV, n. (%) 61.1% [40–79%] 57.7% [40–74%] 66.7% [46–86%] 0.22
  Other, n. (%) 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0.55
 VT, mL 454.6 [414–530] 441.2 [403–532] 469.5 [424–533] 0.29
 VT/PBW, mL/kg 7 [6–8] 7 [6–8] 7 [6–8] 0.57
 PEEP, cmH2O 6.9 [6–8] 6.8 [6–8] 7.1 [6–8] 0.10
 RR, cycle/min 21.8 [20–25] 22.6 [20–25] 21.5 [18–26] 0.94
 Dynamic Pplat, cmH2O 20.3 [18–24] 21.7 [18–25] 20 [17–22] 0.10
 Driving pressure, cmH2O 13.4 [11–15] 13.9 [12–17] 12.2 [10–14] 0.04
 Separation attempts     0.57
  0 21 (26.3%) 11 (22%) 10 (33.3%)  
  1 11 (13.8%) 8 (16%) 3 (10%)  
  2 11 (13.8%) 6 (12%) 5 (16.7%)  
  > 2 37 (46.3%) 25 (50%) 12 (40%)  
Percentage of days with sedation use    
 Any sedation, % 93.5% [76–100%] 100% [79–100%] 89.3% [66–100%] 0.09
 Propofol, % 74.3% [50–91%] 77.8% [55–95%] 69% [49–86%] 0.29
 Midazolam, % 19.1% [0–53%] 33.3% [9–54%] 12.9% [0–34%] 0.06
 Dexmedetomidine, % 0% [0–21%] 9.8% [0–25%] 0% [0–13%] 0.11
Percentage of days with opioids use   
 Opioids, % 100% [87–100%] 100% [89–100%] 100% [77–100%] 0.77
 Morphine, % 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–2%] 0.30
 Fentanyl, % 94.2% [67–100%] 93.8% [72–100%] 96.1% [53–100%] 0.88
 Other opioids, % 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0% [0–0%] 0.80
Percentage of days with NMBA use     
 NMBA, % 12.5% [0–30%] 14.4% [4–31%] 10.4% [0–28%] 0.40
Proportion of patients receiving sedation or opioids the day before tracheostomy    
 Sedation, n (%) 60 (75.0%) 38 (76%) 22 (73.3%) 0.80
 Opioids n (%) 67 (83.75%) 43 (86%) 24 (80%) 0.54
Tracheostomy data     
 Worst PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day of tracheostomy     0.50
  ≥ 400 mmHg 2 (2.5%) 1 (2%) 1 (3.3%)  
  < 400 mmHg 12 (15%) 5 (10%) 7 (23.3%)  
  < 300 mmHg 18 (22.5%) 13 (26%) 5 (16.7%)  
  < 200 mmHg 43 (53.8%) 28 (56%) 15 (50%)  
  < 100 mmHg 5 (6.3%) 3 (6%) 2 (6.7%)  
 Type of tracheostomy     0.76
  Percutaneous, n (%) 13 (16.25%) 9 (18%) 4 (13. 3%)  
  Surgical, n (%) 67 (83.75%) 41 (82%) 26 (86. 7%)  
 Time from intubation to tracheostomy, days 14.7 [10–20] 14.6 [10–20] 14.8 [10–22] 0.92
  1. N = 80 except for dynamic Pplat and driving pressure, where N = 70 (N = 45 for favourable outcome and N = 25 for poor outcome)
  2. VAC volume assist-control, PSV pressure-support ventilation, PAC pressure assist-control ventilation, VT tidal volume, PBW predicted body-weight, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, RR respiratory rate, Pplat plateau pressure, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agents, VT, VT/PBW, PEEP, RR and Dynamic Pplat were recorded once a day at 8 am
  3. #p value calculated using T test or Mann–Whitney test for continuous data and Fisher’s exact test for categorical data