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Figure 1 | Annals of Intensive Care

Figure 1

From: Hacking into bacterial biofilms: a new therapeutic challenge

Figure 1

Temporal evolution of biofilm. Schematization of the four-stage universal growth cycle of a biofilm with common characteristics, including initiation (I), maturation (II and III), maintenance (IV), and dissolution (V). Steps in P. aeruginosa are presented labelled with DAPI (A-C), chromosomal GFP (D) (personal data), or LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit (E) (Boles et al., 2005), observed with confocal microscopy and in S. aureus (F-H) in scanning electron microscopy (personal data). Potential hacking strategies are presented, including limiting 1) switch from planktonic to biofilm lifestyle (protein engineering of key players including c-di-GMP proteins, global regulators), 2) initial adhesion and interaction (glycomimetics), 3) communication (compounds interfering with QS autoinducers), 4) reactivating metabolic activity for increasing antibiotic efficiency (iron chelating procedure as an adjunct to conventional antibiotics), 5) developing anti-adhesive surfaces (silver or antiseptic-coated surfaces for endotracheal tubes), and 6) promoting dispersion (NO, capsules or dispersin-like molecules, phages).

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