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Table 2 Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU, stratified according to immunovirological statuses

From: Short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit: impact of antiretroviral therapy and immunovirological status

   Patients with complete immunovirological status available
  Total n = 76
   CD4 high CD4 low CD4 low CD4 high p value
  n = 98 VL high VL high VL low VL low  
Variable (n,%)   n = 14 n = 40 n = 10 n = 12  
Males 69 (70.4) 8 (57.1) 28 (70) 8 (80) 10 (83.3) 0.496
Age, yr (mean ± SD) 43.1 (10.7) 42.2 (8.5) 40.1 (8.7) 46.8 (16.7) 54.7 (10.5) <0.001
Time since HIV diagnosis   
Less than 6 months 17 (17.3) 1 (7.1) 8 (20) 1 (10) 0 (0)  
Intermediate 14 (14.3) 4 (28.6) 6 (15) 2 (20) 2 (16.7) 0.62
More than 5 years 67 (68.4) 9 (64.3) 26 (65) 7 (70) 10 (83.3)  
HIV diagnosis in ICU 8 (8.2) 0 (0) 6 (15) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.217
Comorbidities       
HbsAg-positive. 14 (14.3) 3 (21.4) 6 (15) 0 (0) 1 (8.3) 0.532
Anti-hepatitis C virus positive 30 (30.6) 10 (71.4) 7 (17.5) 4 (40) 2 (16.7) 0.001
HbsAg + antihepatitis C virus positive 7 (7.1) 3 (21.4) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.117
Alcohol abuse 29 (30) 8 (57.1) 13 (32.5) 2 (20) 2 (16.7) 0.137
Tobacco 30 (31) 8 (57.1) 15 (37.5) 1 (10) 3 (25) 0.099
Past medical history of cancer 13 (12.6) 0 (0) 3 (7.5) 4 (40) 2 (16.7) 0.016
Main reasons for ICU admission   
Acute respiratory failure 38 (38.8) 8 (57.1) 16 (40) 2 (20) 3 (25)  
Sepsis 11 (11.2) 1 (7.1) 3 (7.5) 1 (10) 2 (16.7) 0.749
Severe neurologic disorders 25 (25.5) 2 (14.3) 11 (27.5) 4 (40) 3 (25)  
Miscellaneous 24 (24.5) 3 (21.5) 10 (25) 3 (30) 6 (33.3)  
Opportunistic infections       
No opportunistic infection 73 14 (100) 25 (62.5) 10 (100) 11 (91.7) 0.002
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 11 (11.2) 0 (0) 5 (12.5) 0 (0) 1 (8.3)  
Tuberculosis 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) -
Toxoplasmosis 6 (6.1) 0 (0) 4 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Cryptococcosis 3 (3) 0 (0) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Reactivation of cytomegalovirus (antigenemia positive) 15 (15.3) 0 (0) 10 (25) 0 (0) 1 (8.3) 0.054
ICU data   
SAPS II score (median) 49.5 52 48.5 56 49.5 0.522
APACHE II score (median) 17.5 16.5 18 20 14.5 0.509
Albumin, g/dL (median) 26.1 32.1 28.8 30.7 42.1 0.169
Mechanical ventilation in the first day 59 (60.2) 10 (71.4) 19 (47.5) 8 (80) 8 (66.7) 0.176
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; ART, antiretroviral therapy; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HbsAg, hepatitis B virus surface antigen; ICU, intensive care unit; CD4, lymphocyte T CD4(+); CD4high, ≥200 cell/mm3; CD4low, <200 cell/mm3; VL, viral load; VLhigh, ≥103 copies/ml; VLlow, <103 copies/ml; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  2. *p is significant.