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Table 1 Categorized risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension

From: Incidence and prognosis of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill medical patients: a prospective epidemiological study

Diminished abdominal wall compliance
   • Mechanical ventilation
   • Abdominal surgery with primary fascial or tight closure
   • Major trauma
   • Major burns
   • Prone positioning
   • Head of bed > 30 degrees
   • Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 or morbid obesity
Increased intra-luminal contents
   • Gastroparesis (gastric dilation or gastric residual > 500 mL).
   • Ileus, paralytic or mechanical (abdominal distention or absence of bowel sounds)
   • Colonic pseudo-obstruction
Increased abdominal contents
   • Hemoperitoneum or pneumoperitoneum
   • Ascites secondary to liver dysfunction
   • Ascites secondary to liver dysfunction
   • Other intra-abdominal injuries (peritonitis, abscess)
Capillary leak syndrome or fluid resuscitation
   • Acidosis (arterial pH < 7.2)
   • Hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure < 70 mmHg or a systolic blood pressure decrease > 40 mmHg or > 2 standard deviation below normal for age in the absence of other causes of hypotension)
   • Hypothermia (core temperature < 33°C).
   • Multiple transfusions (> 10 units of blood)
   • Coagulopathy (platelets < 55,000/mm3 or prothrombin time < 15 s or partial thromboplastin time > 2 times normal or international standardized ratio > 1.5)
   • Massive fluid resuscitation (> 5 L of colloid or crystalloid)
   • Acute pancreatitis
   • Oliguria (urine output < 500 mL).
   • Sepsis (American-European Consensus Conference definitions)
   • Major trauma
   • Major burns
   • Damage control laparotomy