Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 General characteristics of the study cohort, and comparisons between patients

From: Incidence and prognosis of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill medical patients: a prospective epidemiological study

  Study cohort ≥2 categorized risk factors <2 categorized risk factors p value
Patients (n, percent) 151 (100) 87 (57.6) 64 (42.4) -
Age (years) 56.7 ± 17.5 55.8 ± 17.2 58 ± 17.9 NS
Male gender (n, percent) 106 (70.2) 66 (75.9) 40 (62.5) NS
Body mass index (kilograms per square meter) 25.9 ± 5.3 26.3 ± 5.6 25.3 ± 4.9 NS
Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, points 20.1 ± 8.4 22.8 ± 7.9 16.5 ± 7.8 < .001
Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on day 1, points 6.4 ± 3.9 7.9 ± 3.9 4.4 ± 2.7 < .001
Number of organ failures on day 1, points 3 ± 1.3 3.2 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.1 < .001
Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score maximum, points 8.1 ± 5.2 10.5 ± 5.1 4.8 ± 3.1 < .001
Number of organ failures maximum, points 3 ± 1.5 3.8 ± 1.5 2.3 ± 1.1 < .001
Positive cumulative fluid balance during ICU stay 59 (39.1) 34 (39) 25 (39) NS
ICU stay (days)a 5 (3-12) 9 (4-25) 3 (2-4) < .001
Hospital stay (days)a 16 (9-37) 24 (4-55) 13 (8-21) = .001
Hospital mortality (n, percent) 42 (27.8) 36 (41.4) 6 (14.3) < .001
Number of categorized risk factors     
   On admission 1.7 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 0.4 < .001
   During ICU stay 2.0 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 0.8 0.8 ± 0.3 < .001
Risk factors during ICU stayb (n, percent)     
   Diminished abdominal wall compliance 114 (75.5) 83 (95.4) 31 (48.4) < .001
Mechanical ventilation 104 (68.9) 77 (88.5) 27 (42.2) < .001
Head of bed > 30° 135 (89.4) 83 (95.4) 52 (81.3) = .005
Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 36 (23.8) 26 (29.9) 10 (15.6) = .04
   Increased intraluminal contents 44 (29.1) 44 (50.6) 0 (0) < .001
Gastroparesis 37 (24.5) 37 (42.5) 0 (0) < .001
Ileus 21 (13.9) 21 (24.1) 0 (0) < .001
   Increased abdominal contents 26 (17.2) 26 (29.9) 0 (0) < .001
Ascites/liver dysfunction 14 (9.3) 14 (16.1) 0 (0) = .001
Ascites of other causes 4 (2.6) 4 (4.6) 0 (0) NS
   Capillary leak syndrome/fluid resuscitation 97 (64.2) 79 (90.8) 18 (28.1) < .001
Acidosis 32 (21.2) 28 (32.2) 4 (6.3) < .001
Hypotension 68 (45) 61 (70.1) 7 (10.9) < .001
Hypothermia 7 (4.6) 7 (8) 0 (0) = .01
Multiple transfusions 3 (2) 3 (3.4) 0 (0) NS
Coagulopathy 48 (31.8) 40 (46) 8 (12.5) < .001
Massive fluid resuscitation 49 (32.5) 40 (46) 9 (14.1) < .001
Acute pancreatitis 5 (3.3) 5 (5.7) 0 (0) NS
Oliguria 43 (28.5) 35 (40.2) 8 (12.5) < .001
Sepsis 68 (45) 56 (64.4) 12 (18.8) < .001
  1. General characteristics of the study cohort, and comparisons between patients with ≥2 vs. <2 categorized risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension. aData are presented as median and interquartile range. bAbdominal surgery with primary fascial or tight closure, major trauma, major burns, prone positioning, colonic pseudo-obstruction, hemoperitoneum or pneumoperitoneum; other intra-abdominal injuries and damage control laparotomy are not included due to the very low number of patients with these risk factors. APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; CRF, categorized risk factors; IAH, intra-abdominal hypertension; ICU, intensive care unit; NS, not significant; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, unless otherwise indicated.