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Table 8 Characteristics of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension and comparisons between survivors and non-survivors

From: Incidence and prognosis of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill medical patients: a prospective epidemiological study

  Intra-abdominal hypertension Survivors Non-survivors p value
Patients (n, percent) 59 (100) 32 (54.2) 27 (45.8) -
Age (years) 59.3 ± 16.4 55.7 ± 16.6 63.5 ± 15.5 NS
Male gender (n, percent) 44 (74.6) 23 (71.8%) 21 (77.8) NS
Body mass index (kilogram per square meter) 27.7 ± 5.6 27.8 ± 6.8 27.6 ± 3.9 NS
APACHE II score, points 24.4 ± 7.8 22.5 ± 8.8 26.6 ± 5.7 .03
SOFA score on day 1, points 8.8 ± 4 7.5 ± 3.7 10.2 ± 3.9 .009
Number of organ failures on day 1, points 1.7 ± 1.1 1.3 ± 1 2.2 ± 0.9 < .001
SOFA score maximum, points 11.7 ± 4.7 10.2 ± 4.2 13.5 ± 4.8 .006
Number of organ failures maximum 2.6 ± 1.3 2.3 ± 1.2 3.1 ± 1.3 .02
Number of categorized risk factors 2.5 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.9 03
   At admission 2.9 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.7 .003
   During ICU stay 5 (8.5) 3 (9.4) 2 (7.4) -
Classification of IAH according to     
   Presentation or development of symptoms (n, percent)     
Acute 51 (86.4) 26 (81.2) 25 (92.6) -
Subacute 3 (5.1) 3 (9.4) 0 (0) NS
Chronic 6 (10.2) 3 (9.4) 3 (11.1) NS
   Grade of IAP reached during ICU     
stay (n, percent)     
I (12-15 mmHg) 34 (57.6) 19 (59.4) 15 (55.5) NS
II (16-20 mmHg) 14 (23.7) 8 (25) 6 (22.2) NS
III (21-25 mmHg) 5 (8.5) 2 (6.2) 3 (11.1) NS
IV (> 25 mmHg) 13 ± 1 14 ± 2 13 ± 1 NS
IAP mean during ICU stay 73 ± 12 74 ± 12 71 ± 12 .001
APP mean during ICU stay 35 (59.3) 21 (65.6) 14 (51.8) NS
Time of IAH development (n, percent)     
   On admission 24 (40.7) 11 (34.4) 13 (48.1) NS
   During ICU stay 1 (1-3) 1 (1-3) 1 (1-4) NS
Day of IAH development during ICU staya 8 (4-16) 7 (4-16) 9 (6-16) NS
Days with maintained IAH during ICU staya 34 (57.6) 12 (37.5) 22 (81.5)  
Non-resolved IAH (n, percent)     
Positive cumulative fluid balance at IAH diagnosis 49 (83) 27 (84.4) 22 (81.5)  
Positive cumulative fluid balance during ICU stay 25 (42.4) 10 (31.2) 15 (55.5)  
ICU stay (days)a 1 (7-29) 12 (7-26) 12 (6-33)  
Hospital stay after ICU (days)a 29 (13-61) 34 (23-58) 16 (8-65)  
  1. aData are presented as median and interquartile range. APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APP, abdominal perfusion pressure; IAH, intra-abdominal hypertension; IAP, intra-abdominal pressure (mmHg); ICU, intensive care unit; NS, not significant; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, unless specified.