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Table 1 Characteristics of patients according to mean IAP and APP on the first ICU admission day.

From: Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cirrhotic patients with septic shock

  All patients IAPa < 12 mmHg IAPa ≥ 12 mmHg p value APPa ≥ 60 mmHg APPa < 60 mmHg p value
  N = 61 N = 11 N = 50   N = 18 N = 43  
Age in years, mean ± SD 59.8 ± 12.2 63.6 ± 7.4 59.0 ± 13.0 0.26 59.0 ± 14.2 60.2 ± 11.5 0.74
Male sex, N (%) 36 (59.0) 7 (63.7) 29 (58.0) 1.00 7 (38.9) 18 (41.9) 0.83
Body mass index (Kg/m2), mean ± SD 26.8 ± 5.9 26.5 ± 6.3 26.9 ± 5.9 0.87 26.3 ± 6.5 27.0 ± 5.8 0.70
Etiology of liver cirrhosis, N (%)        
   Hepatitis C 30 (49.2) 8 (73.0) 22 (44.0)   7 (39.0) 23 (53.0)  
   Hepatitis B 17 (27.9) 2 (18.0) 15 (30.0) 0.27 6 (33.0) 11 (26.0) 0.56
   Others 14 (23.0) 1 (9.0) 13 (26.0)   5 (28.0) 9 (21.0)  
Child-Pugh score, mean ± SD 11.6 ± 1.6 11.2 ± 1.4 11.6 ± 1.6 0.39 11.2 ± 1.9 11.7 ± 1.4 0.29
APACHE II score, mean ± SD 30.1 ± 7.5 23.9 ± 7.7 31.5 ± 6.7 0.002 29.9 ± 7.8 30.2 ± 7.4 0.91
SOFA score, mean ± SD 14.9 ± 3.7 12.5 ± 4.5 15.4 ± 3.3 0.02 13.9 ± 3.7 15.3 ± 3.7 0.1
   SOFA renal sub-score 2.2 ± 1.4 2.0 ± 1.7 2.3 ± 1.3 0.52 1.7 ± 1.4 2.5 ± 1.3 0.06
SBP, N (%) 19 (31.1) 7 (63.6) 12 (24.0) 0.03 5 (27.8) 14 (32.6) 0.71
Encephalopathy, N (%) 42 (68.9) 4 (36.4) 38 (76.0) 0.03 11 (61.1) 31 (72.1) 0.28
Ascites, N (%) 58 (95.1) 11 (100) 47 (94.0) 0.05 16 (88.9) 42 (97.7) 0.26
Mechanically ventilated, N (%) 51 (83.6) 6 (54.5) 45 (90.0) 0.01 16 (88.9) 35 (81.4) 0.71
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg), mean ± SD 252 ± 141 261 ± 129 250 ± 144 0.83 194 ± 117 277 ± 144 0.04
Norepinephrine dose at inclusion (μg/kg/min), mean ± SD 0.35 ± 0.35 0.20 ± 0.29 0.39 ± 0.35 0.11 0.26 ± 0.34 0.39 ± 0.35 0.21
Creatinineb (μmol/l), mean ± SD 289 ± 165 299 ± 176 286 ± 165 0.81 239 ± 147 309 ± 170 0.13
INR, mean ± SD 2.8 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 1.5 2.8 ± 1.4 0.71 2.4 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 1.6 0.08
Bilirubinb (μmol/l), mean ± SD 340.3 ± 284.3 146.0 ± 193.5 383.1 ± 284.6 0.01 313.3 ± 305.2 351.7 ± 278.1 0.63
Ammoniab (μmol/l), mean ± SD 110.2 ± 101.1 74.7 ± 41.1 118.0 ± 108.8 0.03 111.6 ± 167.2 109.6 ± 57.4 0.96
Albumin (g/l), mean ± SD 32.5 ± 7.1 33.8 ± 8.1 32.2 ± 6.9 0.50 31.5 ± 5.4 32.9 ± 7.7 0.48
Hemoglobin (g/dl), mean ± SD 8.6 ± 1.6 9.4 ± 1.6 8.4 ± 1.6 0.27 8.3 ± 1.5 8.7 ± 1.6 0.42
Lactate levelb (mmol/l), mean ± SD 4.4 ± 4.3 3.7 ± 4.6 4.5 ± 4.2 0.59 2.9 ± 2.2 5.0 ± 4.8 0.02
Fluid intake in day 1 (ml), mean ± SD 4,356 ± 2,574 3,993 ± 1,877 4,436 ± 2,712 0.61 4,015 ± 2,486 4,499 ± 3,336 0.51
Fluid balance in day 1 (ml), mean ± SD 3,177 ± 2,919 1,544 ± 2,980 3,537 ± 4,335 0.04 2,368 ± 2,913 3,516 ± 2,887 0.16
MAP day 1 (mmHg), mean ± SD 70.7 ± 7.2 58.8 ± 5.8 59.4 ± 8.1 0.83 63.3 ± 7.1 57.6 ± 7.3 0.007
CVP day 1 (mmHg), mean ± SD 15.5 ± 6.2 12.3 ± 4.0 16.2 ± 6.4 0.054 14.1 ± 6.5 16.1 ± 6.1 0.28
IAP day 1 (mmHg), mean ± SD 15.3 ± 4.7 9.0 ± 2.2 16.7 ± 3.9 < 0.0001 12.8 ± 3.8 16.3 ± 4.7 0.008
APP day 1 (mmHg), mean ± SD 55.5 ± 7.7 59.4 ± 6.2 54.6 ± 7.8 0.06 64.7 ± 5.4 51.6 ± 4.7 < 0.0001
Randomization, N (%)        
   Hydrocortisone 32 (52.5) 4 (36.4) 28 (56.0) 0.24 14 (77.8) 18 (41.9) 0.01
   Placebo 29 (47.5) 7 (63.6) 22 (44.0)   4 (22.2) 25 (58.1)  
  1. IAP ≥ 12 mmHg indicates intra-abdominal hypertension, and APP < 60 mmHg indicates abdominal hypoperfusion. IAP, intra-abdominal pressure; APP, abdominal perfusion pressure; SD, standard deviation; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; SBP, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; MAP, mean arterial pressure; CVP, central venous pressure; INR, international normalized ratio; PaO2/FiO2, the ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). aMean values on the first ICU day. bTo convert creatinine to mg/dl, divide by 88.4; bilirubin to mg/dl, divide by 17.1; ammonia to μg/dl, divide by 0.587; lactic acid to mg/dl, divide by 0.111.