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Table 4 Potential strategies to reduce brain dysfunction in ICU patients

From: Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis

Pharmacological measures Type of study References
  Reduce use of benzodiazepines and opioids Observational studies [44, 95]
Perform daily sedation stops RCT [96, 97]
Use dexmedetomidine (versus benzodiazepines or propofol) as sedative RCT [46, 47, 98]
Pain assessment: sedation – analgesia – delirium protocol Observational studies [99, 100]
  Prevention of metabolic disturbances (severe hypoxemia, fever, dysnatremia(s), prolonged hyperglycemia…) Observational studies [4, 54, 57, 59, 101]
Nonpharmacological measures
  Sleep protocol RCT (non-critical care setting) [102]
Reorientation and cognitively stimulating activities
  Use of eyeglasses, magnifying lenses, and hearing aids
  Avoid use of physical restraints Observational studies [82, 103]
  Early mobilization RCT [104]
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial.