Skip to main content

Table 2 Etiology of elevated CK values in the ICU

From: An observational study on rhabdomyolysis in the intensive care unit. Exploring its risk factors and main complication: acute kidney injury

CK (U/L) <170 (%) (n = 398) 170–999 (%) (n = 1029) 1,000–5,000 (%) (n = 283) >5,000 (%) (n = 59)
Recent surgery 39.5 84.1* 78.1* 59.4*
Cardiac 5.5 54.9* 31.4* 8.4
Abdominal 12.4 21.8* 27.8* 22.2
Vascular 6.6 5.8 5.1 16.7
Orthopedic 1 2.3 5.2* 12.9*
Thoracic 2.9 20* 19.1* 1
Neurologic 12.2 13.4 10.4 3.7
Other 3.1 2.8 3.1 1.8
Muscle ischemia 9.5 12.9 19.1* 49.9*
Arterial occlusion 5 3.7 2.6 9.3
Venous occlusion 1.6 2.4 0.5 0
Compartment syndrome 0 1.1* 1* 9.3*
Immobilization 1.6 1.5 2.6 3.7
Prolonged surgery 1.3 4.5* 12.9* 25.9*
Resuscitation 5.3 6.3 9.3* 11.1*
Trauma 2.4 7.5* 13.9* 16.7*
Blunt trauma 2.1 7.1* 13.4* 14.8*
Penetrating trauma 0.5 1.1 1 1.9
Infectious 48.8 52.4 51 42.6
Severe sepsis and septic shock 10.6 9.7 16* 20.4
Necrotizing fasciitis 0.3 0.4 1 1.9
Gram-positive infection 12.5 8.6 13.4 16.7
Gram-negative infection 25.7 18.8 17 25.9
Use of drugs and toxins 4.1 5.8 4 5.6
Ethanol 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.9
Cocaine 0.3 0.4 0.5 0
Heroine 0 0.4 0.5 0
Other/unknown 3 3.7 1.5 3.7
  1. Data are presented as %.
  2. *p < 0.05 (statistically significant compared with the CK level <170 U/l).
  3. Immobilization = before admission; Prolonged surgery = surgery for more than 6 hours of duration.
  4. All risk factors were considered relevant if they had occurred in the 24 hours before admission to the ICU.