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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients from the sepsis cohort

From: Vitamin D deficiency and risk of acute lung injury in severe sepsis and severe trauma: a case-control study

Characteristic N Cases Controls Combined P-value
   (n = 120) (n = 120) (n = 240)  
Agec (IQR) 240 59.3 (53.2, 65.7) 59.3 (52.7, 65.7) 59.3 (53.2, 65.7) 0.885a
Female gender (%) 240 53 (44) 56 (47) 109 (45) 0.791b
Smoking (%) 231     0.505b
Never   40 (34) 33 (29) 73 (32)  
Former   44 (38) 40 (35) 84 (36)  
Current   33 (28) 41 (36) 74 (32)  
Diabetes (%) 240 31 (26) 47 (39) 78 (32) 0.045b
Summer season (%) 240 34 (28) 35 (29) 69 (29) 1b
Day length hours (IQR)c 240 12.0 (10.6, 13.6) 12.0 (10.6, 13.5) 12.0 (10.6, 13.6) 0.655a
APACHE II Score (IQR)c 240 28 (23, 32.2) 28 (23, 32.2) 28 (23, 32.2) NA
Number of non-pulmonary organ failures (%) 240     0.753a
0   15 (12) 24 (20) 39 (16)  
1   60 (50) 45 (38) 105 (44)  
2   39 (32) 39 (32) 78 (32)  
3   4 (3) 9 (8) 13 (5)  
4   2 (2) 3 (2) 5 (2)  
Days of ICU stay (IQR) 240 9 (6,15) 6 (4,10) 7 (4,14) 0.008a
Hospital mortality (%) 240 30 (25) 31 (26) 61 (25) 1b
One-year mortality (%) 240 66 (55) 71 (59) 137 (57) 0.614b
Risk factors for ALI/ARDS 240     < 0.001b
Non-pulmonary sepsis   55 (46) 70 (60) 125 (53)  
Pneumonia   39 (33) 22 (19) 61 (26)  
Aspiration   24 (20) 8 (7) 32 (14)  
Other or Noned   1 (1) 16 (14) 17 (16)  
Patients on ventilator   89 (74) 71 (59) 160 (67) 0.016b
25-OHD (nmol/L) (IQR) 239 45.8 (29.9, 60.8) 39.0 (25.0, 56.9) 43.2 (27.6, 58.8) 0.123a
Vitamin D status (%) 239     0.358b
Deficiency (< 50 nmol/L)   72 (60) 82 (69) 154 (64)  
Insufficiency (50 to 75 nmol/L)   32 (27) 26 (22) 58 (24)  
Sufficiency (> 75 nmol/L)   16 (13) 11 (9) 27 (11)  
  1. Data given as median with interquartile range (IQR) or frequency with (%) of patients.
  2. N is the number of non-missing values.
  3. aWilcoxon signed rank test; bMcNemar’s test; cMatched; dOther or None (pancreatitis, multiple transfusions, trauma).