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Table 2 Factors impacting on sleep architecture

From: Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review

Factor Example
Environmental noise Staff conversations and monitoring alarms
Prolonged exposure to low levels of artificial light  
Inflammatory mediators  
Pain  
Pharmacological agents Sedative, opioids, benzodiazepines and inotropes
Mechanical ventilation  
Increased cortisol release  
Decreased endogenous melatonin levels  
Critical illness  
Clinical interactions Vital sign monitoring, pathological investigations and medication administration