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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients at admission in the intensive care unit

From: An observational study of adult admissions to a medical ICU due to adverse drug events

Characteristics Total (n = 743) Preventable ADE (n = 102) Unpreventable ADE (n = 71) Control (n = 570) P value
Preventable–unpreventable Preventable–control Unpreventable–control
Age (median [IQR]) 65 [51; 78] 63 [47; 77] 65 [55; 75] 65 [50; 78] 0.60 0.63 0.92
Gender (males/females; sex ratio) 427/316; 1.35 50/52; 0.96 43/28; 1.53 334/236; 1.42 0.16 8.2 × 10−2 0.80
Number of underlying disease(s) [n (%)]      1.2 × 10−2 5.7 × 10−3 6.7 × 10−9
 0 95 (13 %) 5 (5 %) 0 (0 %) 90 (16 %)    
 1 200 (27 %) 27 (27 %) 9 (12 %) 164 (29 %)    
 2 234 (31 %) 34 (33 %) 25 (35 %) 176 (31 %)    
 ≥3 214 (29 %) 36 (35 %) 38 (53 %) 140 (24 %)    
Underlying disease(s) [n (%)]        
 Cardiovascular risk factors 415 (56 %) 66 (65 %) 48 (66 %) 302 (53 %) 0.87 3.1 × 10−2 4.3 × 10−2
 Chronic heart failure 87 (12 %) 18 (18 %) 15 (21 %) 54 (9 %) 0.56 2.2 × 10−2 6.8 × 10−3
 Chronic renal failure 118 (16 %) 20 (20 %) 18 (25 %) 80 (14 %) 0.46 0.17 2.1 × 10−2
 Chronic respiratory disease 119 (16 %) 13 (13 %) 7 (10 %) 99 (17 %) 0.63 0.31 0.12
 Neuropsychiatric disease 181 (24 %) 30 (30 %) 13 (18 %) 138 (24 %) 0.11 0.27 0.30
 Cirrhosis 84 (11 %) 10 (10 %) 18 (25 %) 80 (14 %) 1.1 × 10−2 3.9 × 10−2 4.7 × 10−3
 Solid tumor 109 (15 %) 12 (12 %) 14 (20 %) 83 (15 %) 0.20 0.54 0.29
 Hematological malignancy 104 (14 %) 15 (15 %) 28 (38 %) 62 (11 %) 5.8 × 10−4 0.30 4.2 × 10−8
 Immunodeficiency 188 (25 %) 32 (31 %) 47 (66 %) 109 (19 %) 6.7 × 10−6 7.9 × 10−3 1.4 × 10−15
McCabe score [n (%)]      1.6 × 10−3 0.55 6.7 × 10−5
 No fatal underlying disease 413 (56 %) 63 (62 %) 27 (38 %) 323 (57 %)    
 Underlying disease with expected life <5 years 239 (32 %) 28 (27 %) 23 (32 %) 188 (33 %)    
 Underlying disease with expected life <1 year 91 (12 %) 11 (11 %) 21 (30 %) 59 (10 %)    
 SAPS II (median [IQR]) 40[29; 54] 42 [32; 51] 47 [37; 61] 40 [28; 54] 1.3 × 10−2 0.44 7.7 × 10−4
 SOFA score (median [IQR]) 5 [3; 9] 5 [3; 9] 7 [4; 10] 5 [2; 8] 1.8 × 10−2 0.19 1.4 × 10−4
Patients’ origin [n (%)]      5.2 × 10−3 0.66 1.5 × 10−3
 Direct admission (ED; home) 400 (54 %) 59 (58 %) 26 (35 %) 316 (55 %)    
 Secondary admission (ward, other hospitals) 343 (46 %) 43 (42 %) 45 (65 %) 254 (45 %)    
Main reason for admission [n (%)]      1.5 × 10−4 3.8 × 10−8 1.2 × 10−2
 Acute respiratory failure 259 (35 %) 24 (24 %) 20 (28 %) 215 (38 %)    
 Metabolic disorders 95 (13 %) 32 (31 %) 6 (8 %) 57 (10 %)    
 Cardiac arrest 22 (3 %) 5 (5 %) 3 (4 %) 14 (2 %)    
 Neurologic disorders 162 (22 %) 26 (25 %) 14 (19 %) 122 (21 %)    
 Shock 172 (23 %) 15 (15 %) 28 (40 %) 129 (23 %)    
 Other 33 (4 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 33 (6 %)    
  1. ADE adverse drug event, ED emergency department, ICU intensive care unit, IQR inter-quartile range, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment