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Table 2 Univariate analysis of variables associated with mortality at day 28 in the overall population

From: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus noninvasive ventilation in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: an observational cohort study

  Survivors (n = 81) Non-survivors (n = 34) Odds ratio (95 % CI) p value
Demographic variables     
 Age (years) 56 ± 15 60 ± 15 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.13
 Gender (male) 54 (67 %) 23 (68 %) 0.96 (0.41–2.25) 0.92
 ICU admission before 2011 24 (30 %) 14 (41 %) 1.66 (0.72–3.82) 0.23
 Noninvasive ventilation as a first-line therapy 34 (42 %) 22 (65 %) 2.67 (1.16–6.12) 0.03
 SAPS II score 42 ± 12 47 ± 13 1.036 (1.00–1.07) 0.04
 Modified SOFA score excluding respiratory item 3 (1–6) 4 (1–7) 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 0.44
 Knaus chronic health status score     0.32
  A 24 (30 %) 10 (29 %) 1  
  B 31 (38 %) 8 (24 %) 0.62 (0.21–1.81)  
  C 23 (28 %) 13 (38 %) 1.36 (0.50–3.70)  
  D 3 (3.7 %) 3 (8.8 %) 2.40 (0.41–13.98)  
 Mac Cabe classification     0.32
  1 28 (35 %) 11 (32 %) 1  
  2 37 (46 %) 12 (35 %) 0.83 (0.32–2.14)  
  3 16 (20 %) 11 (32 %) 1.75 (0.62–4.94)  
 Type of immunosuppression     0.08
  Hematologic cancer or neutropenia 49 (60 %) 15 (44 %) 1  
  Solid cancer 9 (11 %) 10 (29 %) 3.53 (1.21–10.27)  
 Drug-induced immunosuppression 21 (26 %) 9 (26 %) 1.41 (0.54–3.70)  
  Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 2 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 0.64 (0.02–27.52)  
Variables at inclusion     
 Heart rate (bpm) 111 ± 23 113 ± 21 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.71
 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg) 126 ± 24 126 ± 29 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.96
 Diastolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg) 67 ± 18 67 ± 13 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.99
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 28 (25–32) 30 (27–34) 1.04 (0.98–1.10) 0.19
 SpO2 (%) 96 (94–99) 94 (90–97) 0.90 (0.83–0.97) 0.01
 Body temperature (°C) 38.0 ± 1.2 37.7 ± 0.9 0.82 (0.58–1.18) 0.29
 pH 7.46 (7.42–7.49) 7.44 (7.40–7.49) 0.59 (0.00–21.07) 0.30
 Sodium bicarbonate (mmol/l) 24 (22–27) 24 (22–27) 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 0.83
 PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 158 ± 59 141 ± 48 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.15
 PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg 62 (77 %) 29 (85 %) 1.78 (0.60–5.23) 0.29
 PaO2 (mmHg) 74 (61–88) 70 (57–93) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.38
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 34 (31–40) 34 (31–45) 1.01 (0.97–1.06) 0.56
 PaCO2 > 45 mmHg 8 (10 %) 6 (18 %) 1.96 (0.62–6.14) 0.24
 Bilateral lung infiltrate 69 (85 %) 27 (79 %) 0.67 (0.24–1.89) 0.45
Vasopressors within 24 h after ICU admission 10 (12 %) 13 (38 %) 2.18 (0.85–5.62) 0.11
Immunosuppressive drug during ICU stay 22 (27 %) 6 (17 %) 0.58 (0.21–1.58) 0.35
Cause of respiratory failure     0.13
 Documented infection 38 (47 %) 17 (50 %) 1  
 Cardiogenic pulmonary edema 10 (12 %) 0 (0 %) 0.11 (0.01–2.17)  
 Specific 11 (14 %) 8 (24 %) 1.63 (0.56–4.76)  
 Other identified causes 12 (15 %) 6 (18 %) 1.14 (0.37–3.54)  
 Not identified cause 10 (12 %) 3 (9 %) 0.73 (0.19–2.91)  
  1. Nominal variables are given as number (%), and continuous data are given as median (25th–75th percentile) or mean ± standard deviation (SD) according to their distribution using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test
  2. SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment