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Table 2 Patients’ characteristics according to chloride category

From: Impact of chloride and strong ion difference on ICU and hospital mortality in a mixed intensive care population

General ICU population (excl. cardiac surgery) Hypochloremia Normochloremia Moderate hyperchloremia Severe hyperchloremia
n = 6480 n = 434 n = 3382 n = 1456 n = 1206
Patient characteristics
Age (mean ± SD) 63.0 ± 14.9 62.0 ± 15.7 60.1 ± 15.8 59.3 ± 15.9
SAPS-3 (mean ± SD) 59.2 ± 14.6 51.8 ± 17.1 48.2 ± 17.1 52.8 ± 17.7
Mechanical ventilation on day 2 25 (5.8 %) 149 (4.4 %) 83 (5.7 %) 87 (7.2 %)
Comorbidities     
 COPD 113 (26.0 %) 427 (12.6 %) 140 (9.6 %) 74 (6.1 %)
 Heart failure 140 (32.3 %) 699 (20.7 %) 193 (13.3 %) 150 (12.4 %)
 Chronic kidney disease 90 (20.7 %) 422 (12.5 %) 170 (11.7 %) 144 (11.9 %)
Outcome
30-day mortality 434 (16.4 %) 3382 (10.2 %) 1456 (8.5 %) 1208 (14.6 %)
Hospital mortality (n = 5184a) 329 (43.8 %) 2707 (24.3 %) 1188 (18.4 %) 960 (29 %)
Acute kidney injury [n (%)]
 Creatinine-based RIFLE score
  None (81.0 %) 300 (5.7 %) 2747 (52.3 %) 1237 (23.6 %) 967 (18.4 %)
  Risk (9.3 %) 57 (9.4 %) 296 (48.9 %) 132 (21.8 %) 120 (19.8 %)
  Injury (5.7 %) 39 (10.6 %) 193 (52.6 %) 53 (14.4 %) 82 (22.3 %)
  Failure (4.0 %) 38 (14.8 %) 146 (56.8 %) 34 (13.2 %) 39 (15.2 %)
 Urine-based RIFLE score
  None (14.4 %) 70 (7.5 %) 479 (51.34 %) 199 (21.3 %) 185 (19.8 %)
  Risk (48.7 %) 195 (6.2 %) 1624 (51.5 %) 715 (22.7 %) 618 (19.6 %)
  Injury (35.3 %) 144 (6.3 %) 1217 (53.2 %) 530 (23.2 %) 398 (17.4 %)
  Failure (1.6 %) 25 (23.6 %) 62 (58.5 %) 12 (11.3 %) 7 (6.6 %)
Biochemistry and physicochemical covariates on day of admission
 pCO2
  Low (<35 mmHg) 96 (22.1 %) 773 (22.9 %) 359 (24.7 %) 372 (30.8 %)
  Normal 186 (42.9 %) 1850 (54.7 %) 849 (58.3 %) 664 (55.0 %)
  High (>45 mmHg) 152 (35.0 %) 759 (22.4 %) 248 (17.0 %) 172 (14.2 %)
 Sodium (mmol/L) 132.3 ± 5.6 137.9 ± 3.2 141.1 ± 2.9 144.6 ± 4.5
 SIDa (excl. lactate) (mEq/L) 47.7 ± 4.6 43.9 ± 3.1 42.3 ± 2.7 41.1 ± 3.5
 Lactate (mmol/L) 3.1 ± 3.1 2.8 ± 2.6 2.7 ± 2.3 3.3 ± 2.8
 Strong ion gap (SIG) (mEq/L) 6.9 ± 4.7 6.6 ± 3.3 6.4 ± 3.3 6.8 ± 3.8
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SIDa apparent strong ion difference (excl. lactate)
  2. aIf more than one ICU admission, only data on the last admission were used