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Table 3 Postoperative outcome

From: Goal-directed fluid restriction during brain surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial

Parameters GDFR group (n = 73) Control group (n = 72) p value
ICU length of stay (days) 3 (1–5) 6 (3–11) 0.001
Mortality (n/%) 4/5.5 9/12.5 0.158
Hospital length of stay (days) 15 (7–23) 17 (9–27) 0.069
Complications (day 30)
 Total (n) 46 99 0.043
 Patients with one or more complications (n/%) 14/19.2 25/34.7 0.034
 Vomiting (n/%) 2/2.7 2/2.8 0.989
 Coma (n/%) 3/4.1 2/2.8 0.660
 Seizure (n/%) 1/1.4 3/4.2 0.304
 Encephaledema (CT/MRI) (n/%) 9/12.3 16/22.2 0.115
 Pneumonia (n/%) 9/12.3 20/27.8 0.020
 Sepsis (n/%) 0/0 2/2.8 0.152
 Ventilator support (n/%) 6/8.2 12/16.7 0.123
 New onset of ventilator support (n/%) 3/4.1 8/11.1 0.111
 AKI (without dialysis) (n/%) 3/4.1 5/6.9 0.455
 Renal failure with dialysis (n/%) 0/0 1/1.4 0.312
 Stroke (including TIA) (n/%) 1/1.4 0/0 0.319
 Deep vein thrombosis (n/%) 0/0 4/5.6 0.041
 Graft thrombosis (n/%) 0/0 1/1.4 0.312
 Wound infection/dehiscence (n/%) 0/0 0/0 1
 Skin lesions (n/%) 8/11.0 16/22.2 0.068
 Arrhythmias (non-life threatening) (n/%) 1/1.4 2/2.8 0.552
 Arrhythmias (life threatening) (n/%) 0/0 1/1.4 0.312
 Heart failure/pulmonary edema (n/%) 0/0 4/5.6 0.041
 Acute myocardial infarction (n/%) 0/0 0/0 1
 Pulmonary embolism (n/%) 0/0 0/0 1
Costs    
 Hospital costs ($) 9218 ± 2890 10,249 ± 3175 0.482
 ICU costs ($) 1776 ± 459 3080 ± 700 0.037
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. ICU intensive care unit, AKI acute kidney injury