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Table 1 Patient characteristics, categorized by preload

From: Associations among left ventricular systolic function, tachycardia, and cardiac preload in septic patients

Variable [median (IQR) or N (%)] Overall N = 452 Preload (N = 338) p value
E/e′ < 8
N = 57
8 ≤ E/e′ ≤ 14
N = 160
E/e′ > 14
N = 121
Cohort details
 Female 240 (53%) 22 (39%) 78 (49%) 89 (74%) <0.001
 Age, years 65 (54–75) 59 (46–71) 64 (52–73) 71 (62–78) <0.001
 Body mass index 28 (24–34) 26 (24–31) 28 (24–33) 29 (25–33) 0.44
 APACHE II 25 (18–33) 29 (18–36) 24 (16–33) 24 (18–29) 0.10
 SOFA 9 (6–12) 9 (6–13) 9 (6–12) 8 (6–10) 0.09
 MAP, mm Hg 69 (61–77) 69 (65–77) 69 (61–76) 70 (60–76) 0.61
 Receiving vasopressors 175 (39%) 31 (54%) 74 (46%) 35 (29%) 0.001
 Norepinephrine-equivalent dose, mcg/kg/mina 0.14 (0.07–0.30) 0.17 (0.09–0.29) 0.15 (0.06–0.34) 0.09 (0.06–0.22) 0.23
 Mechanically ventilated 138 (31%) 31 (54%) 44 (28%) 24 (20%) <0.001
 PiO2/FiO2 ratio, mm Hg 234 (160–335) 223 (145–316) 248 (165–365) 250 (185–360) 0.66
 Serum lactate, mmol/dL 2.3 (1.4–3.8) 2.6 (1.5–4.0) 2.4 (1.5–3.9) 1.8 (1.2–3.5) 0.08
 Heart rate, BPM 97 (83–112) 100 (86–114) 98 (83–112) 93 (78–106) 0.08
 Fluid (6 h prior to echo), Lb 3.0 (1.2–4.0) 3.0 (1.9–4.8) 3.4 (2.0–5.0) 2.0 (1.0–4.0) 0.004
Echocardiographic parameters
 Ejection fraction, % 61 (52–69) 61 (50–70) 62 (56–67) 62.8 (52–70) 0.69
 Strain, % −17 (−20 to −12) −16 (−20 to 11) −17 (−20 to 13) −16 (−20 to 13) 0.38
 E/e 11.9 (8.9–16.3) 6.7 (5.9–7.4) 10.5 (9.4–12.2) 18.5 (15.7–21.8) <0.001
 Stroke volume, mL 56 (45–70) 48 (37–65) 61 (47–72) 60 (48–75) 0.015
Diastolic functionb      <0.001
 Grade 0 (normal) 197 (49%) 26 (65%) 106 (72%) 16 (14%)  
 Grade 1 23 (6%) 5 (13%) 12 (8%) 2 (2%)  
 Grade 2 43 (11%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%) 40 (34%)  
 Grade 3 16 (4%) 1 (2%) 1 (1%) 12 (10%)  
 Indeterminate 119 (30%) 7 (18%) 27 (18%) 48 (41%)  
Clinical outcomes
 Inpatient mortality 87 (19%) 14 (25%) 28 (18%) 21 (17%) 0.46
 28-Day mortality 103 (23%) 14 (25%) 33 (21%) 29 (24%) 0.73
 OFFD cardiovascular to day 14 13 (9–13) 12 (7–13) 13 (9–13) 13 (10–13) 0.08
 OFFD coagulation to day 14 14 (13–14) 14 (12–14) 14 (13–14) 14 (13–14) 0.98
 OFFD hepatic to day 14 14 (12–14) 14 (10–14) 14 (12–14) 14 (13–14) 0.50
 OFFD renal to day 14 13 (11–14) 13 (9–14) 13 (12–14) 13 (12–14) 0.39
  1. Preload was defined according to the ratio of early diastolic mitral filling to early mitral annular tissue velocity (E/e′)
  2. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, MAP mean arterial pressure, E/e′ ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow blood velocity to early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity. OFFD organ-failure-free days
  3. aAmong those receiving vasopressors
  4. bThese data were only collected in the 398 patients from Intermountain ICUs, 40 with low preload, 146 with intermediate preload, 118 with high preload