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Table 3 Cox regression (bivariable and multivariable) analyses of variables associated with death at sixty days

From: Frequency, associated factors and outcome of multi-drug-resistant intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia among patients colonized with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

Variables Bivariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95% CI) p value aHR (95% CI) p value
SAPS2 > 43 1.76 (1.03–3.00) 0.038 1.93 (1.12–3.34) 0.018
Chronic pulmonary disease 1.68 (0.93–3.04) 0.086  
Liver cirrhosis 1.89 (0.86–4.17) 0.11  
Ab < 3 mo., broad-sp. > 10 d 2.21 (1.31–3.71) 0.003  
C3G < 3 mo 1.64 (0.93–2.90) 0.087  
Carbapenem < 3 mo 2.59 (1.11–6.06) 0.03  
Charlson > 2 1.75 (1.04–2.95) 0.034  
ESBL colonization at admission 1.56 (0.92–2.63) 0.10  
Septic shock associated with nosocomial pneumonia 2.86 (1.68–4.85) 0.0001 2.81 (1.66–4.78) <0.0001
VAP 0.48 (0.24–0.96) 0.037 0.48 (0.24–0.98) 0.04
ESBL-PE ICUAP 1.57 (0.93–2.64) 0.091 1.15 (0.65–2.05) 0.64
ICU-acquired infection before ICUAP 0.51 (0.28–0.95) 0.033 0.52 (0.28–0.97) 0.04
Others antibiotics between colonization and pneumonia 1.49 (0.89–2.52) 0.13  
Appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapya 1.05 (0.56–1.95) 0.88 0.66 (0.34–1.27) 0.22
  1. Ab antibiotic, broad-sp. broad-spectrum, 3GC third-generation cephalosporin; iBL beta-lactamase inhibitor, mo month, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, ICUAP ICU-acquired pneumonia, <3 mo within 3 months before ICU admission, HR (95% CI) hazard ratio interquartile range (25–75%)
  2. aAntibiotic treatment was considered adequate if one or more antibiotics initiated for ICUAP were active against the causative microorganism on the basis of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the strain