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Table 2 Bivariate association between patient and PICU stay characteristics and anemia at PICU discharge

From: Anemia at pediatric intensive care unit discharge: prevalence and risk markers

  All patients (n = 679) Not anemic (p = 289) Anemic (n = 390) Crude OR (CI95 %) p value
Patient characteristics
Age (months) 39 (6–141) 20 (4–89) 57.5 (10.8–159.3)   < 0.001
 < 1 month 55 (8.1) 16 (5.4) 39 (10.0) Reference  
 1–5 months 105 (15.5) 73 (25.3) 32 (8.2) 0.18 (0.09, 0.38)  
 6–59 months 231 (34.0) 106 (36.7) 125 (32.1) 0.48 (0.25, 0.94)  
 5–11 years 119 (17.5) 49 (17.0) 70 (17.9) 0.59 (0.29, 1.20)  
 12–14 years 81 (11.9) 26 (9.0) 55 (14.1) 0.86 (0.40, 1.88)  
 ≥ 15 years 88 (13.0) 19 (6.6) 69 (17.7) 1.47 (0.66, 3.30)  
Gender male 353 (52.0) 147 (50.9) 206 (52.8) 1.08 (0.78, 1.50) 0.62
Cancer (n, %) 37 (5.4) 10 (3.5) 27 (6.9) 2.08 (0.99, 4.37) 0.048
Congenital heart disease (n, %)      0.018
 Cyanotic 84 (12.4) 49 (17.0) 35 (9.0) 0.49 (0.29, 0.80)  
 Non-cyanotic 73 (10.8) 29 (10.0) 44 (11.3) 1.04 (0.61, 1.77)  
 No congenital heart disease 522 (76.9) 211 (73.0) 311 (79.7) Reference  
PICU admission day
PRISM score      0.35
 > 10 125 (18.4) 53 (18.3) 72 (18.5) 0.84 (0.48, 1.46)  
 6–10 194 (28.6) 93 (32.2) 101 (25.9) 0.67 (0.40, 1.11)  
 1–5 250 (36.8) 101 (34.9) 149 (38.2) 0.91 (0.56, 1.48)  
 0 110 (16.2) 42 (14.6) 68 (17.4) Reference  
PELOD score      0.034
 > 20 27 (4.0) 7 (2.4) 20 (5.1) 2.82 (1.09, 7.29)  
 11–20 153 (22.5) 56 (19.4) 97 (24.9) 1.71 (1.1, 2.67)  
 1–10 271 (39.9) 113 (39.1) 158 (40.5) 1.39 (0.95, 2.03)  
 0 228 (33.6) 113 (39.1) 115 (29.5) Reference  
Lowest Hb (g/L), mean ± SD 108.9 ± 24.3 120.8 ± 20.1 100.4 ± 23.4 0.96 (0.95, 0.96) < 0.001
 Anemia 341 (50.2) 57 (21.1) 284 (75.1) 11.27 (7.63, 16.65) < 0.001
Lowest platelets count (× 109/L), mean ± SD 234.5 ± 133.9 250.2 ± 114.6 223.2 ± 145.2 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 0.021
 Thrombocytopeniaa 194 (28.6) 63 (23.4) 131 (34.7) 1.72 (1.18, 2.5) 0.005
Admission diagnosis
 Respiratory disease 239 (35.2) 127 (43.9) 112 (28.8) 0.51 (0.36, 0.72) < 0.001
 Infection 254 (37.5) 120 (41.5) 134 (34.4) 0.74 (0.53, 1.04) 0.079
 Non-cardiac surgery 165 (24.3) 48 (16.7) 117 (30.2) 2.16 (1.44, 3.21) < 0.001
 Cardiac surgery 106 (15.6) 47 (16.3) 59 (15.1) 0.91 (0.59, 1.42) 0.69
 Seizures 49 (7.2) 27 (9.3) 22 (5.6) 0.58 (0.31, 1.07) 0.081
 Any shock 46 (6.8) 16 (5.6) 30 (7.7) 1.44 (0.74, 2.79) 0.28
 Trauma 23 (3.4) 19 (4.9) 4 (1.4) 3.62 (1.17, 11.26) 0.027
PICU stay
Transfusion (n,  %)      
 Any transfusion 176 (25.9) 59 (20.4) 117 (30.0) 1.67 (1.14, 2.45) 0.009
 Red blood cells 143 (21.1) 45 (15.6) 98 (25.1) 1.83 (1.21, 2.77) 0.005
 Plasma 94 (13.8) 39 (13.5) 55 (14.1) 1.06 (0.66, 1.7) 0.81
 Platelets 58 (8.5) 13 (4.5) 45 (11.5) 2.73 (1.4, 5.32) 0.004
Respiratory dysfunction 337 (49.6) 159 (55.0) 178 (45.6) 0.69 (0.5, 0.95) 0.025
Cardiovascular dysfunction 14 (2.1) 4 (1.4) 10 (2.6) 1.91 (0.56, 6.55) 0.30
Hematological dysfunction 115 (16.9) 32 (11.1) 83 (21.3) 2.15 (1.35, 3.42) 0.002
Neurological dysfunction 388 (57.1) 162 (56.1) 226 (57.9) 1.09 (0.79, 1.51) 0.60
Hepatic dysfunction 98 (14.4) 33 (11.4) 65 (16.7) 1.55 (0.97, 2.5) 0.069
Renal dysfunction 24 (3.5) 4 (1.4) 20 (5.1) 3.86 (1.25, 11.95) 0.02
New or progressive MODS 112 (16.5) 43 (14.9) 69 (17.7) 1.22 (0.78, 1.89) 0.38
Death in PICU 25 (3.7) 9 (3.1) 16 (4.1) 1.35 (0.56, 3.24) 0.50
Infection (proven or suspected) 301 (44.3) 137 (47.6) 164 (42.3) 0.81 (0.58, 1.12) 0.20
Severe sepsis/septic shock 63 (9.3) 19 (6.6) 44 (11.3) 1.8 (1.00, 3.26) 0.051
Support techniques (n,  %)      
 Mechanical ventilation 350 (51.5) 147 (50.9) 203 (52.1) 1.05 (0.76, 1.45) 0.75
  Duration (day), median (Q1–Q3)b 2 (1–5) 2 (1–5) 3 (1–5)   
 ECMO/Berlin heart 8 (1.2) 4 (1.4) 4 (1.0) 0.74 (0.17, 3.24) 0.68
 Plasmapheresis 5 (0.7) 1 (0.3) 4 (1.0)
 Renal replacement therapy 13 (1.9) 1 (0.3) 12 (3.1) 9.12 (1.11, 75.09) 0.04
PICU length of stay (day), median (Q1–Q3)c 3 (2–6) 3 (2–6) 3 (2–6)   0.70
 PICU stay > 48 h (n,  %) 450 (66.3) 185 (64.0) 265 (67.9) 1.2 (0.85, 1.68) 0.30
  1. Values are frequencies and percentage unless otherwise specified
  2. OR odds ratio, PICU pediatric intensive care unit, PRISM pediatric risk of mortality, PELOD pediatric logistic organ dysfunction, Hb hemoglobin, SD standard deviation, MODS multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CI confidence interval
  3. aOdds ratio calculated for an increase of 10 × 109/L
  4. bCalculated for patients mechanically ventilated only
  5. cMann–Whitney U test was used for this variable due to its distribution