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Table 2 Comparison of the mode of feeding, source, goal, and achieved energy and protein intake between 28-day survivors and non-survivors stratified by days of exclusive nutrition support

From: When timing and dose of nutrition support were examined, the modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score did not differentiate high-risk patients who would derive the most benefit from nutrition support: a prospective cohort study

Nutrition parameters Short-term exclusive nutrition support (≤ 6 days) Longer-term exclusive nutrition support (≥ 7 days)
Survivors (n = 62) Non-survivors (n = 44) p Survivors (n = 106) Non-survivors (n = 40) p
Mode of feeding
 Enteral 60 [96.8] 42 [95.5] 0.725 92 [86.8] 31 [77.5] 0.169
 Parenteral 1 [1.6] 0 [0.0] 0.397 8 [7.5] 4 [10.0] 0.630
 Combination 1 [1.6] 2 [4.5] 0.370 6 [5.7] 5 [12.5] 0.163
Energy
 Goal (kcal/kg) 25.5 (5.5) 25.9 (6.3) 0.680 25.9 (4.4) 24.8 (4.3) 0.166
 Actual intake (kcal/kg) 10.0 (6.0) 15.0 (6.4) < 0.001 17.7 (5.2) 16.9 (5.7) 0.389
 Actual intake (% goal/kg) 40.0 (22.4) 59.2 (24.1) < 0.001 68.8 (17.8) 68.2 (19.5) 0.857
Energy sources (%)
 Enteral 82.2 (24.9) 80.8 (28.7) 0.785 82.6 (29.5) 86.0 (23.3) 0.506
 IV dextrose 6.7 (17.5) 11.4 (21.3) 0.215 1.4 (2.9) 1.5 (3.3) 0.769
 Propofol 10.1 (14.7) 4.1 (6.2) 0.005 5.2 (6.5) 5.3 (9.4) 0.944
 Parenteral 1.0 (7.8) 3.7 (17.2) 0.333 10.8 (29.4) 7.1 (21.8) 0.468
Protein
 Goal (g/kg) 1.14 (0.20) 1.15 (0.26) 0.779 1.20 (0.21) 1.15 (0.26) 0.281
 Actual intake (g/kg) 0.39 (0.26) 0.57 (0.30) 0.001 0.79 (0.24) 0.71 (0.28) 0.125
 Actual intake (% goal/kg) 34.7 (21.6) 51.4 (26.4) 0.001 66.1 (18.9) 61.6 (19.4) 0.206
Protein sources (%)
 Enteral 98.8 (9.6) 95.5 (20.8) 0.338 88.5 (31.2) 92.3 (23.7) 0.486
 Parenteral 1.2 (9.6) 4.5 (20.8) 0.338 11.5 (31.2) 7.7 (23.7) 0.486
Per cent protein energya 14.6 (5.1) 15.1 (5.9) 0.600 17.9 (3.5) 16.8 (3.8) 0.100
Fed ≤ 48 h of ICU adm 59 [95.2] 43 [97.7] 0.495 101 [95.3] 37 [92.5] 0.510
Days on ENS 3.0 (3.0, 4.0) 3.0 (3.0, 5.0) 0.735 14.0 (12.0, 14.0) 14.0 (9.3, 14.0) 0.126
Blood glucose (mmol/L)b 8.7 (2.9) 8.8 (2.3) 0.846 8.7 (2.3) 9.1 (2.3) 0.345
GRV > 200 mLc 0.0 (0.0, 0.3) 0.3 (0.0, 0.7) 0.001 0.2 (0.0, 0.5) 0.0 (0.0, 0.3) 0.140
Hypoglycaemiac,d 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.3) 0.420 0.2 (0.0, 0.5) 0.0 (0.0, 0.3) 0.440
  1. Values are mean (SD), median (q1, q3), or count [percentage]
  2. adm, admission; ENS, exclusive nutrition support; GRV, gastric residual volume; ICU, intensive care unit; IV, intravenous; mNUTRIC, modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill score
  3. aPercentage of energy provided by protein relative to the total energy intake
  4. bAverage of daily measurements at 8 am on exclusive nutrition support
  5. cEpisodes per day on exclusive nutrition support
  6. dBlood glucose < 4.0 mmol/L