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Table 3 Variables associated with weaning failure in 246 mechanically ventilated patients (three patients could not be classified according to the international conference consensus definition)

From: Pleural effusion during weaning from mechanical ventilation: a prospective observational multicenter study

Variables Weaning success (n = 173) Weaning failure (n = 73) p value
Male gender 98 (57%) 49 (67%) 0.13
Age (years) 61 [52–73] 69 [60–79] 0.006
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26 [22–29] 27 [22–32] 0.07
SAPS II at ICU admission 49 [38–62] 49 [39–65] 0.73
Comorbidities
COPD 23 (13%) 23 (32%) 0.001
Cardiac disease 101 (58%) 55 (75%) 0.01
Main reason for intubation
Coma 54 (31%) 9 (12%) 0.002
Acute respiratory failure 48 (27%) 39 (53%) < 0.001
Septic shock 24 (14%) 8 (11%) 0.54
Others 47 (27%) 17 (23%) 0.53
From ICU admission to first SBT
ARDS 28 (16%) 27 (37%) < 0.001
Neuromuscular blockade 26 (15%) 28 (38%) < 0.001
Septic shock 61 (35%) 39 (53%) 0.01
VAP 17 (10%) 16 (22%) 0.01
Supra-ventricular arrhythmias 32 (19%) 22 (30%) 0.04
Duration of MV before first SBT 3 [2–6] 6 [3–12] < 0.001
Dialysis 22 (13%) 8 (11%) 0.70
Fluid balance between ICU admission and first SBT (L) 2.8 [0.9–6.4] 5.7 [0.7–11.4] 0.01
Biological and ultrasound data at first SBT
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 307 [242–385] 247 [200–299] < 0.001
Moderate-to-large pleural effusion 42 (24%) 37 (51%) < 0.001
Drainable pleural effusion 36 (21%) 29 (40%) 0.002
Large pleural effusion 21 (12%) 25 (34%) < 0.001
Left ventricle ejection fraction (%, n = 205) 60 [50–60] 55 [40–60] 0.06
Outcome
Pleural effusion drainage during weaning 0 4 (6%) 0.01
Prophylactic NIV post-extubation 65 (38%) 30 (44%) 0.35
Tracheotomy 1 (1%) 5 (7%) 0.01
VFD from first SBT to day 28 (days) 23 [20–26] 11 [0–21] < 0.001
Death in ICU 5 (3%) 19 (26%) < 0.001
Death at day 28 8 (5%) 17 (23%) < 0.001
  1. Values are indicating number (%), or median [1st–3rd quartile]
  2. SAPS II simplified acute physiology score, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, NIV noninvasive ventilation, ICU intensive care unit, VFD ventilator-free days