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Table 1 Prospective studies with MAP titration and peripheral (microcirculatory) or targeted tissue/organ perfusion assessment in septic shock

From: Hemodynamic support in the early phase of septic shock: a review of challenges and unanswered questions

Authors [ref.] No. of patients (n) Design of MAP titration in mmHg (time at each step, min) Main results
Ledoux et al. [25] 10 65, 75, 85 mmHg (105) CI ↑
Arterial lactates, gastric intra-mucosal-arterial PCO2 difference, skin microcirculatory blood flow (skin capillary blood flow and red blood cell velocity), urine output: ns
Bourgoin et al. [26] 2 × 14 MAP 65 versus 85 mmHg (240) comparison of two groups CI ↑
Arterial lactates, VO2, and renal function: ns
Deruddre et al. [27] 11 65, 75, 85 mmHg (120) 65–75 mmHg: urine output ↑, RRI ↓
75–85 mmHg: urine output, RRI: ns
Creatinine clearance: ns
Jhanji et al. [28] 16 60, 70, 80, 90 mmHg (45) DO2, cutaneous PtO2, cutaneous microvascular red blood cell flux (laser Doppler flowmetry) ↑
Sublingual capillary MFI (SDF): ns
Dubin et al. [29] 20 65, 75, 85 mmHg (30) CI, systemic vascular resistance, left and right ventricular stroke work indexes ↑
Arterial lactates, DO2, VO2, gastric intra-mucosal-arterial PCO2 difference, sublingual capillary MFI and percent of perfused capillaries (SDF imaging): ns
Thooft et al. [30] 13 65, 75, 85 mmHg (30) CI, SvO2, StO2, sublingual perfused vessel density and MFI (SDF imaging) ↑
VO2: ns
Arterial lactates ↓
  1. MAP mean arterial pressure, CI cardiac index, VO2 oxygen consumption, RRI renal resistive index, DO2 oxygen delivery, MFI microvascular flow index, SvO2 mixed venous oxygen saturation, StO2 thenar muscle oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), PtO2 tissue oxygen pressure, SDF side-stream dark field
  2. ns result not significant, ↑ increase, ↓ decrease