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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Airway pressure release ventilation during acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Design Sample size Age (years) Type of patients PaO2/FiO2 at baseline (mmHg) MV before randomization (h) Intervention Comparator APRV initial setting Primary outcome
Putensen et al. [13] RCT 30 APRV: 40 ± 19 CV: 42 ± 23 Trauma with acute respiratory failure 250 APRV: 6 ± 3.9 CV: 6 ± 3.9 APRV PCV Ph = ↓UIP Vt < 7 ml/kg Pl = LIP + 2 cmH2O Tl = flow 0 Effects on cardiorespiratory function
Varpula et al. [10] RCT 58 APRV: 50 (38.5–60.5) CV: 44 (35.5–53) ALI/ARDS P/F < 200 mmHg MV < 72 h APRV: 150 ± 8 CV: 164 ± 7 39.1 ± 17.5 APRV SIMV-PC/PS Ph = ↓UIP Pl = ↑LIP Th = 4 s Tl = 1 s Ventilator-free days at day 28
Li et al. [12] RCT 52 APRV: 54.3 ± 8.4 CV: 53.6 ± 9.5 Moderate/severe ARDS APRV: 119 ± 35 CV: 118 ± 36 Not reported APRV SIMV (LTV) Ph = 30 cmH2O Pl = 0 Th = 4–8 s Tl = 0.4–0.8 s Unclear
Zhou et al. [11] RCT 138 APRV: 51.5 ± 15 CV: 52 ± 15.1 ARDS P/F < 250 mmHg MV < 48 h APRV: 122 ± 47 CV: 138 ± 56 APRV: 24.6 ± 12.6 CV: 22.1 ± 13.5 APRV LTV Ph = Pplat Pl = 5 cmH2O Tl > 50% PEFR RR 10–14 bpm MVst = 30% of MVtot Ventilator-free days at day 28
Hirshberg et al. [16] RCT 52 APRV: 57 ± 16 APRV-LTV: 57 ± 15 VC-LTV: 51 ± 14 Hypoxemic respiratory failure MV < 24 h APRV: 109 ± 67 CV: 121 ± 50 Not reported APRV/APRV-LTV VC-LTV Ph = Pplat Pl = 5 cmH2O Th = 4–6 s Tl = 50–75% PEFR P/F at day 3
  1. ALI acute respiratory injury, APRV airway pressure release ventilation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, CV conventional ventilation, LIP lower inflection point, LTV low tidal volume ventilation, MV mechanical ventilation, MVst spontaneous minute ventilation, MVtot total minute ventilation, PEFR peak expiratory flow rate, Ph high level of pressure, Pl low level of pressure, RCT randomized controlled trial, RR respiratory rate, Th time for high pressure, Tl time for low pressure, UIP upper inflection point, Vt tidal volume