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Table 3 Demographic, preoperative and diaphragm variables associated to the change in diaphragm thickness

From: Diaphragm thickening in cardiac surgery: a perioperative prospective ultrasound study

  Change in diaphragm thickness between day one preoperatively and day + 1 after surgery
  > 10% of decrease Stability > 10% of increase  
  n = 29 n = 19 n = 19 P value
Age (yo) 73 [66–81] 66 [59–74] 74 [58–76] 0.2
BMI (kg/m2) 26 (4) 27 (4) 25 (4) 0.2
Euroscore 2 2 [1–4] 1 [1–3] 1 [1, 2] 0.3
Length of stay (d) 3 [2–5] 2 [2–4] 2 [2] 0.046
RR (cycles/min) 25 (8) 22 (7) 24 (8) 0.3
TV (ml) 411 (135) 432 (123) 436 (124) 0.8
RR/TV 67 (30) 62 (28) 58 (26) 0.6
Cross clamp time (min) 62 (24) 74 (35) 61 (35) 0.4
Surgery duration (h) 5.4 (1) 5.8 (1) 5.2 (1) 0.2
Total MV (h) 10 (4) 9 (1) 9 (2) 0.2
CPB time (min) 93 (25) 103 (35) 90 (48) 0.5
Postoperative MV (h) 4.5 (3) 3 (1) 3.3 (1) 0.1
TEE preoperative (mm) 2.6 (0.6) 2.4 (0.4) 2.1 (0.4) 0.002
TEE during SBT (mm) 2.4 (0.7) 2.2 (0.5) 2.2 (0.6) 0.5
TEE day one (mm) 2 (0.4) 2.3 (0.4) 2.7 (0.6) < 0.001
Preoperative TF (%) 40 (20) 30 (14) 34 (18) 0.7
SBT TF (%) 14 (13) 16 (14) 23 (16) 0.1
Day one TF (%) 13 (12) 9 (8) 12 (13) 0.6
Loss of TF from D − 1 and SBT 25 (17) 15 (15) 11 (21) 0.02
Loss of TF from SBT to D + 1 − 2 (14) − 6 (12) − 11 (14) 0.08
Loss of tf from d − 1 to d + 1 27 (20) 21 (12) 22 (21) 0.5
  1. Data are presented as mean and standard deviation, median with first and third quartile or number [–] and percentages ()
  2. BMI body mass index, TV tidal volume, RR respiratory rate, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, TEE thickness at end expiration, TF thickening fraction TV, CPB Cardiopulmonary bypass, MV mechanical ventilation