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Table 2 Grouping of suggested biomarkers of delirium according to their main function

From: Serum biomarkers of delirium in the elderly: a narrative review

Function Assigned biomarker Established clinical use
Cytokine IL-1β Inflammatory marker
IL-2
IL-6
IL-8
IL-12
IL-18
TNF-α
Enzyme Adenylate kinase Marker of liver cell damage
ASAT Marker of cell damage
Cholinesterase Marker of liver synthetic function
CK Marker of muscle damage
CK-BB Tumor marker
LDH Marker of tissue breakdown
NSE Tumor marker; brain damage marker
PI3K  
Growth factor BDNF Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency; marker of pituitary function
IGF-1
Hormone Cholecystokinin  
Cortisol Marker of adrenal function
Leptin  
Prolactin Marker of pituitary gland/hypothalamus function; fertility assessment; tumor marker
Metabolic product Amyloid  
Phenylalanine–tyrosine ratio  
Neuronotrophic factor S-100β Tumor marker; brain damage marker
SDNF  
Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine  
Dopamine  
Histamine  
Transcription factor CREB  
Transport protein Albumin Nutritional marker, negative acute phase protein
Other AZGP1  
BUN Marker of kidney function
Creatinine Marker of kidney function
CRP Inflammatory marker, positive acute phase protein
HSP70  
Metalloproteinase-9 Proinflammatory marker
Neopterin Marker of infection
NLR  
Procalcitonin Proinflammatory marker
Protein C  
Thioredoxin  
8-iso-prostaglandin F2α  
  1. ASAT aspartate aminotransferase, AZGP1 alpha-2 glycoprotein, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CK creatine kinase, CK-BB creatine kinase BB, CREB cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, CRP C-reactive protein, HSP70 heat shock protein 70, IL interleukin, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor-1, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, NLR neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, NSE neuron-specific enolase, PI3K phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PCT procalcitonin, SDNF striatal-derived neuronotrophic factor, TNF tumor necrosis factor