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Table 2 Primary and Secondary Outcomes in the VERROU-REA Study (N = 396)

From: Trisodium citrate 4% versus heparin as a catheter lock for non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters in critically ill patients: a multicenter, randomized clinical trial

Outcome Citrate (N = 199) Heparin (N = 197) p value
Overall duration of the first catheter (days), median (Q1, Q3)a 7 (3, 10) 5 (3, 11) 0.51
First hemodialysis non-tunneled catheter-days, n 1461 1590  
Fibrinolysis for the first non-tunneled hemodialysis catheter, n (%) 2 (1%) 0 1
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 1.37 0  
Bleeding at the insertion site of the catheter, n (%) 1 (1%) 5 (3%) 0.12
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 0.68 3.14  
Hematoma at the insertion site of the first catheter, n (%) 3 (2%) 1 (1%) 0.62
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 2.05 0.63  
Thrombosis of the first non-tunneled hemodialysis catheter, n (%) 9 (5%) 3 (2%) 0.14
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 6.16 1.89  
Local first catheter-related infection, n (%) 7 (14%) 8 (19%) 0.55
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 4.79 5.03  
General first catheter-related infection, n (%) 4 (8%) 1 (2%) 0.37
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 2.74 0.63  
First catheter-related bloodstream infection, n (%) 1 (2%) 0 1
 Incidence rate per 1000 catheter-days 0.68 0  
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia 4 (2%) 2 (1%) 1
Bleeding events during follow-up 41 (21%) 37 (19%) 0.65
 Requiring transfusion packs red blood cells 22 (11%) 27 (14%) 0.42
 Requiring transfusion of ≥ 2 packs red blood cells 20 (10%) 26 (13%) 0.33
Death at 28 days, n (%) 88 (44%) 94 (48%) 0.49
Death in ICU, n (%) 84 (42%) 92 (47%) 0.37
Length of ICU stay (from randomization) (days), median (Q1, Q3) 6 (3, 14) 6 (3, 12) 0.70
In-hospital death, n (%) 102 (51%) 108 (55%) 0.48
Length of hospital stay (from randomization) (days), median (Q1, Q3) 15 (6, 31) 12 (4, 27) 0.18
  1. aKaplan–Meier estimation and log-rank test with one missing data in the Heparin arm