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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics between inclusion group and three exclusion groups

From: Targeted temperature management guided by the severity of hyperlactatemia for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a post hoc analysis of a nationwide, multicenter prospective registry

VariablesInclusion
n = 435
No TTM
n = 2013a
p valuecTTM withdrawal
n = 161b
p valuecUnknown lactate concentration
n = 112
p valuec
Age, years63 [50, 73]75 [6, 83]< 0.00165 [53, 75]0.12663 [51, 72]0.881
Age > 65 years182 (42)1405 (70)< 0.00178 (48)0.16351 (46)0.521
Male sex338 (78)1190 (59)< 0.001115 (71)0.13085 (76)0.705
Witness348 (80)1312 (65)< 0.001122 (76)0.26183 (74)0.195
Dispatcher instruction198 (46)852 (42)0.2475 (47)0.85345 (40)0.338
Bystander-performed CPR228 (52)839 (42)< 0.00188 (55)0.64550 (45)0.168
Cardiac etiology332 (76)786 (39)< 0.001128 (80)0.44385 (76)0.902
Initial shockable rhythm235 (54.0)218 (11)< 0.00174 (46)0.09654 (48)0.290
Prehospital epinephrine administration99 (23)613 (31)0.00157 (35)0.00129 (26)0.532
Prehospital advanced airway management145 (33)871 (43)< 0.00161 (38)0.33243 (38)0.318
Prehospital AED313 (72)777 (39)< 0.001110 (68)0.41673 (65)0.165
Response time, min8 [6, 9]8 [7, 10]< 0.0018[7, 10]< 0.0018 [6, 10]0.197
Time from call to hospital arrival, min30 [24, 36]32 [27, 40]< 0.00132 [27, 40]0.01430 [24, 36]0.942
Prehospital ROSC252 (58)563 (28)< 0.00136 (22)< 0.00128 (25)< 0.001
Glasgow Coma Scale score3 [3, 3]3 [3, 3.]< 0.0013 [3, 3]< 0.0013 [3, 3]0.003
Coronary angiography257 (59)235 (12)< 0.001100 (62)0.51275 (67)0.131
ECMO and/or IABP123 (28)157 (8)< 0.00176 (47)< 0.00154 (48)< 0.001
Targeted temperature management  NA 0.198 0.005
 32–34 °C319 (73)0 (0) 124 (79) 92 (86) 
 35–36 °C116 (27)0 (0) 33 (21) 15 (14) 
30-day favorable neurological outcome182 (42)183 (9)< 0.00120 (12)< 0.00132 (29)0.012
30-day survival325 (75)354 (18)< 0.00136 (22)< 0.00167 (60)0.003
  1. Continuous variables were presented as median [Interquartile range]. Categorical variables were presented as n (%)
  2. TTM targeted temperature management, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, AED automated external defibrillator, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, IABP intra-aortic balloon pumping, ABG arterial blood gas
  3. aThere were 1160 patients excluded due to death at the emergency department and 89 patients excluded because they got Glasgow Coma Scale motor score of 6 after return of spontaneous circulation
  4. bThere was one patient excluded due to death at the emergency department
  5. cVs. inclusion group