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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the 107 patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

From: Outcome and prognostic factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in immunocompromised adults: a prospective observational study

  Patients with PJP
n = 107
Age, years, mean ± SD 56 ± 18
Males, n (%) 65 (61)
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 23 ± 4
Serum albumin, g/L, mean ± SD 26.8 ± 6.3
Chronic underlying disease, n (%)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 33 (30.8)
 Chronic kidney disease 24 (22.4)
 Chronic heart failure 9 (8.4)
ICU admission, n (%) 51 (47.7)
Severe ARDS, n (%) 47 (43.9)
PaO2/FiO2 on admission, mean ± SD 174 ± 112
SAPS2, mean ± SD 33 ± 13
SOFA score on day 1, mean ± SD 3 ± 3
Cause of immunodeficiency, n (%)a
 Haematological malignancy 37 (34.6)
 Solid organ transplant 27 (25.2)
 HIV infection 21 (19.6)
 HIV viral load, copies/mL, mean ± SD 317,240 ± 474,037
 Systemic disease 13 (12.2)
 Solid malignancy 12 (11.2)
 Primary immunodeficiency 8 (7.5)
 Ongoing immunosuppressive therapy, n (%) 83 (77.6)
 Ongoing glucocorticoid therapy, n (%) 51 (47.7)
  Prednisolone-equivalent dosage, mg/day, mean ± SD 17 ± 30
PJP prophylaxis, n (%)b 21 (19.6)
Time from symptom onset to admission, days, mean ± SD 13 ± 22
Time from symptom onset to initiation of effective therapy, days, mean ± SD 16 ± 19.7
Laboratory findings, mean ± SD
 White blood cells/mm3 12.5 ± 26.5
 Neutrophils/mm3 7.4 ± 13
 Lymphocytes/mm3 2038.1 ± 7913.5
 CRP, mg/L 110.1 ± 96.1
 LDH, µKat/L 9.8 ± 5.8
Diagnosis of PJP
 Sputum 16 (15)
  Positive PJ PCR 15
  PJ visible in smears 3
 Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid
  N of patients (%) 97 (90.7)
  Time from onset to BAL, days, mean ± SD 3 ± 5.5
  PJ visible in smears, n (%) 49 (45.8)
  Alveolitis profile, n (%) 31 (29)
Co-infection at PJP diagnosis, n (%)
 Viral infection 37 (35)
 Bacterial infection 29 (18)
 Invasive fungal infection 5 (5)
Respiratory support, n (%)
 Mechanical ventilation 30 (28)
 Non-invasive ventilation 2 (1.9)
Outcome
 90-day mortality, n (%) 29 (27.1)
  1. BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; SAPS2, simplified acute physiology score version 2; SOFA score, sequential organ failure assessment score; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; PJP, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; CRP, C-reactive protein; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; PJ, Pneumocystis jirovecii
  2. aThe total exceeds 100% because some patients had more than one cause of immunodeficiency
  3. bOf these 21 patients, 7 followed their prescribed prophylactic regimen (aerosolised pentamidine, n = 6; and atovaquone, n = 1) and 14 did not (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, n = 11; and aerosolised pentamidine, n = 3)