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Table 1 Details of the included randomized controlled trials

From: Effect of nitric oxide on postoperative acute kidney injury in patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass: a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis

Study (year)PopulationThe protocol of NO therapyComparisonDefinition of AKIDuration of CPB (min)No. of AKI/no. of cases
NOControlNOControl
Potapov (2011)Adults, LVAD placement40 ppm within 48 h, through inhalation#PlaceboNeed for RRTNANA10/738/77
Fernandes (2011)Adults, mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension10 ppm within 48 h, through inhalation#OxygenUrine output < 0.3 ml/kg/h88 ± 31#94 ± 34#0/141/15
Lei (2018)Adults, multiple valve replacement surgery, mostly due to rheumatic fever80 ppm within 24 h,through CPB and inhalationPlaceboKDIGO criteria (SCr only)138 (122;159)$&134 (114;154)&58/11781/127
Kamenshchikov (2018)Adults, CABG40 ppm through CPBStandard CPBKDIGO criteria (SCr only)*110 (85.8;137)&116 (88.8;129.5)&1/303/30
Kamenshchikov (2019)Adults, CABG, valve surgery, surgical reconstruction of the left ventricle40 ppm through CPBStandard CPBKDIGO criteria (SCr and urine output)118 (95.5;167.5)&119 (91.7;130.4)&10/4820/48
  1. LVAD left ventricular assist device, AKI acute kidney injury, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass; placebo, an equivalent concentration of nitrogen; KDIGO criteria* only monitoring for 2 days after operation, RRT renal replacement therapy; through inhalation # started NO administration immediately at the discontinuation of CPB; $ p = 0.048; # mean ± SD; & median (interquartile range)