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Table 1 Characteristics and main outcomes of the study’s population according to the presence of diaphragm dysfunction and intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) at time of liberation from mechanical ventilation

From: ICU-acquired weakness, diaphragm dysfunction and long-term outcomes of critically ill patients

Characteristics and outcomesDiaphragm dysfunctionNo diaphragm dysfunctionp
No ICU-AW
N = 32
ICU-AW
N = 16
No ICU-AW
N = 18
ICU-AW
N = 10
 
Men, n (%)20 (63)12 (75)15 (83)5 (50)0.23
Age, years63 (47–74)65 (54–72)47 (33–64)60 (51–68)0.05
SAPS II upon admission44 (24–64)43 (28–67)32 (15–42)37 (26–63)0.18
SOFA upon admission4 (3–7)5 (5–7)5 (4–5)6 (4–10)0.47
Duration of MV at inclusion, days4 (1–6)6 (4–10)a2 (1–5)5 (3–6)<0.01
Main reason for admission, n (%)
 Acute respiratory failure17 (53)8 (50)3 (17)3 (30)0.06
 Coma2 (6)4 (25)13 (72)3 (30)<0.01
 Shock13 (41)4 (25)2 (11)4 (40)0.14
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Chronic respiratory disease8 (25)2 (13)2 (11)0 (0)0.23
 Chronic cardiac disease7 (22)3 (19)2 (11)0 (0)0.36
 Diabetes5 (16)4 (25)4 (22)1 (10)0.74
 Immunocompromised6 (19)6 (38)3 (16)3 (30)0.42
 Current smoking18 (56)7 (44)7 (39)5 (50)0.66
Limbs muscles strength
 Medical Research Council score54 (51–57)36 (30–44)59 (52–60)40 (33–44)
Diaphragm function
 Ptr,stim, cmH2O7 (6–8)6 (3–8)14 (13–20)12 (11–17)
Main outcomes
 Total duration of MV, days6 (3–12)10 (5–22)a2 [1–5]7 (5–20)a< 0.01
 Duration of ICU stay, days9 (3–16)17 (7–27)a4 [3–10]13 (8–27)< 0.01
 Duration of hospital stay, days21 (15–31)25 (15–49)a9 [5–23]27 (13–32)0.03
 ICU survival, n (%)27/32 (84)10/16 (69)18/18 (100)8/10 (80)0.33
 Hospital survival, n (%)26/32 (81)9/16 (63)18/18 (100)8/10 (80)0.02
 Two-year survival, n (%)24/31 (77)5/14 (36)11/14 (79)6/10 (60)0.03
  1. Categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%) and continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range [25–75%])
  2. p values according to Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables and Chi-2 for dichotomous variables
  3. SAPS 2 Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, MV mechanical ventilation, ICU intensive care unit, ICU-AW ICU-acquired weakness, Ptr,stim tracheal pressure during the phrenic nerves stimulation
  4. aAs compared to the group of 18 patients without diaphragm dysfunction neither ICU-AW