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Table 1 Patients’ clinical and laboratory characteristics between MAKE and Non-MAKE patients in the Development Cohort (n = 2856)

From: SEA-MAKE score as a tool for predicting major adverse kidney events in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: results from the SEA-AKI study

Clinical characteristicsMAKE
(n = 1749)
Non-MAKE
(n = 1106)
P valueMissing values, n (%)
Age, years65.8 ± 20.065.2 ± 16.70.4600
BMI, kg/m223.50 ± 15.1323.64 ± 5.890.7674 (0.1)
Sex Male, n (%)944 (54.0)634 (57.3)0.0821 (0)
Co-morbidity diseases
 HT784 (44.8)494 (44.7)0.9692 (0.1)
 DM524 (30.0)281 (25.5)0.00911 (0.4)
 CAD183 (10.5)117 (10.6)0.95010 (0.4)
 Cerebrovascular disease119 (6.8)69 (6.3)0.5889 (0.3)
 Malignancy143 (8.2)82 (7.4)0.47710 (0.4)
 CKD278 (15.9)93 (8.4)< 0.0011 (0)
Chronic health points  0.1481 (0)
 01326 (75.8)818 (74.0)
241 (2.3)39 (3.5)
 5382 (21.8)249 (22.5)
Glasgow Coma Scale9.18 3.7311.49 2.97< 0.0010
Temperature, degree Celsius  < 0.0011 (0)
 ≤ 29.92 (0.1)0
 32–33.917(1.0)7 (0.6)
 34–35.9176 (10.1)70 (6.3)
 36–38.41222 (69.9)875 (79.1)
 38.5–38.9146 (8.3)82 (7.4)
 39–40.9175 (10.0)71 (6.4)
 ≥ 4111 (0.6)1 (0.1)
Heart rate, beats per minute  < 0.0011 (0)
 ≤ 399 (0.5)9 (0.8)
 40–5426 (1.5)19 (1.7)
 55–6981 (4.6)92 (8.3)
 70–109737 (42.1)563(50.9)
 110–139672 (38.4)324 (29.3)
 140–179216 (12.3)98 (8.9)
 ≥ 1808 (0.5)1 (0.1)
Respiratory rate, breaths per minute  < 0.0011 (0)
 ≤ 51 (0.1)1 (0.1)
 6–91 (0.1)3 (0.3)
 10–116 (0.3)6 (0.5)
 12–24890 (50.9)760 (68.7)
 25–34689 (39.4)292 (26.4)
 35–49161 (9.2)44 (4.0)
 ≥ 501 (0.1)0
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg  < 0.0015 (0.2)
 ≥ 70734 (42.0)678 (61.4)
 < 7081 (4.6)78 (7.1)
 Dopamine ≤ 5 or any60 (3.4)39 (3.5)
 Dopamine > 5–15 or norepinephrine ≤ 0.1150 (8.6)97 (8.8)
 4, Dopamine > 15 or norepinephrine > 0.1722 (41.3)212 (19.2)
Hematocrit,  %  < 0.0011 (0)
 < 20124 (7.1)34 (3.1)
 20–29.9666 (38.1)244 (22.1)
 30–45.9882 (50.4)748 (67.6)
 46–49.947 (2.7)58 (5.2)
 50–59.924 (1.4)20 (1.8)
 ≥ 606 (0.3)2 (0.2)
Platelet count, per µL  < 0.0013 (0.1)
 ≥ 150,0001057 (60.5)845 (76.5)
 < 150,000265 (15.2)136 (12.3)
 < 100,000238 (13.6)76 (6.9)
 < 50,000124 (7.1)36 (3.3)
 < 20,00064 (3.7)12 (1.1)
Serum sodium, mEq/L  < 0.0011 (0)
 ≤ 1102 (0.1)1 (0.1)
 111–11915 (0.9)9 (0.8)
 120–129184 (10.5)75 (6.8)
 130–1491469 (84.0)998 (90.2)
 150–15464 (3.7)15 (1.4)
 155–15910 (0.6)5 (0.5)
 160–1794 (0.2)3 (0.3)
 ≥ 1801 (0.1)0
Serum potassium, mEq/L  < 0.0011 (0)
 < 2.518 (1.0)15 (1.4)
 2.5–2.981 (4.6)39 (3.5)
 3–3.4261 (14.9)183 (16.5)
 3.5–5.41198 (68.5)823 (74.4)
 5.6–5.987 (5.0)28 (2.5)
 6–6.969 (3.9)13 (1.2)
 ≥ 735 (2.0)5 (0.5)
Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dL39.8 (23.9, 65.0)23 (15.0, 35.0)< 0.001a1 (0)
Serum creatinine, mg/dL  < 0.0011 (0)
 < 0.665 (3.7)73 (6.6)
 0.6–1.4489 (28.0)587 (53.1)
 1.5–1.9264 (15.1)213 (19.3)
 2–3.4453 (25.9)165 (14.9)
 ≥ 3.5478 (27.3)68 (6.1)
Total bilirubin, mg/dL  < 0.0018 (0.3)
 < 1.21266 (72.6)911 (82.6)
 1.2–1.9151 (8.7)82 (7.4)
 2.0–5.9211 (12.1)87 (7.9)
 6.0–11.978 (4.5)16 (1.5)
 ≥ 1239 (2.2)7 (0.6)
PaO2/FiO2  < 0.0012 (0.1)
 > 400368 (21.0)296 (26.8)
 ≤ 400332 (19.0)250 (22.6)
 ≤ 300494 (28.2)316 (28.6)
 ≤ 200 with respiratory support335 (19.2)181 (16.4)
 ≤ 100 with respiratory support220 (12.6)62 (5.6)
Arterial pH  < 0.0011 (0)
 7.15154 (8.8)15 (1.4)
 7.15–7.24157 (9.0)32 (2.9)
 7.25–7.32205 (11.7)83 (7.5)
 7.33–7.49875 (50.0)689 (62.3)
 7.5–7.59106 (6.1)86 (7.9)
 7.6–7.6972 (4.1)55 (5.0)
 ≥ 7.773 (4,2)27 (2.4)
Urine output, liter0.59 (0.19, 1.31)0.86 (0.4, 1.56)< 0.001a23 (0.8)
Net fluid balance, liter1.31 (0.36, 2.63)0.70 (0, 1.62)< 0.001a22 (0.8)
Mechanical ventilation (day 1)1541 (88.3)772 (69.9)< 0.0015 (0.2)
Vasopressor (day 1)939 (53.8)350 (31.7)< 0.0016 (0.2)
APACHE II21.85 ± 6.8215.89 ± 6.53< 0.0010
SOFA day 19.40 ± 3.985.83 ± 3.50< 0.0016 (0.2)
LOS in ICU5 (2, 10)4 (2, 8)0.243a18 (0.6)
LOS in hospital11 (5, 24)13 (7, 24)0.002a7 (0.2)
  1. aIndependent Samples Kruskal–Wallis Test