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Table 1 Demographic and infection characteristics of the 74 cases of zygomycosis

From: Mucormycosis in intensive care unit: surgery is a major prognostic factor in patients with hematological malignancy

Demographic characteristicsStudy population (n=74)Survivors (n=21)Non-survivors (n=53)p-value
Age, years, mean (SD)a50.6 (16.6)39.5 (17.5)55.0 (14.1)0.001
Sex-ratio (H/F)1.961.632.120.78
Underlying disease
 Hematological malignancies, n (%)41 (55.4)7 (33.3)34 (64.2)0.02
 Acute myeloid leukemia, n (%)15 (20.3)4 (19.0)11 (20.8)1
 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, n (%)10 (13.5)2 (9.5)8 (15.1)0.71
 Lymphoma, n (%)8 (10.8)0 (0)8 (15.1)0.10
 Multiple myeloma, n (%)2 (2.7)0 (0)2 (3.8)1
 Myelodysplastic syndrome, n (%)2 (2.7)0 (0)2 (3.8)1
 Other, n (%)4 (5.4)1 (4.8)3 (5.7)0.84
 Allogenic HSCT, n (%)16 (21.6)1 (4.8)15 (28.3)0.03
 Autologous HSCT, n (%)7 (9.5)1 (4.8)6 (11.3)0.67
 Solid malignancies, n (%)4 (5.4)2 (9.5)2 (3.8)0.32
 SOT, n (%)9 (12.2)2 (9.5)7 (13.2)1
 Inflammatory disease, n (%)2 (2.7)1 (4.8)1 (1.9)0.49
 Systemic steroids, n (%)30 (40.5)2 (9.5)28 (52.8)< 0.001
 Diabetes, n (%)11 (14.9)0 (0)11 (20.8)0.03
Other condition, n (%)
 Chronic alcoholism, n (%)8 (10.8)2 (9.5)6 (11.3)1
 Malnutrition, n (%)24 (32.4)3 (14.3)21 (39.6)0.05
 Drug addiction, n (%)1 (1.4)1 (4.8)0 (0)0.28
 Chronic renal failure, n (%)7 (9.5)0 (0)7 (13.2)0.18
 Respiratory disease, n (%)15 (20.3)5 (23.8)10 (18.9)0.75
 Cirrhosis, n (%)1 (1.4)1 (4.8)0 (0)0.28
 Trauma, n (%)7 (9.5)5 (23.8)2 (3.8)0.017
 Burn, n (%)3 (4.1)1 (4.8)2 (3.8)1
 Previous antifungal therapy, n (%)30 (40.5)5 (23.8)25 (47.2)0.07
Number of predisposing factors0.003
 0, n (%)13 (17.6)8 (38.1)5 (9.4)
 1, n (%)21 (28.4)9 (42.9)12 (22.6)
 ≥ 2, n (%)31 (41.9)4 (19.0)27 (50.9)
Site of infection
 Lungs, n (%)29 (39.2)8 (38.1)21 (39.6)1
 Skin, n (%)15 (20.3)7 (33.3)8 (15.1)0.11
 Sinus and ENT infection, n (%)1 (1.35)1 (4.8)0 (0)0.28
 Abdomen, n (%)1 (1.35)0 (0)1 (1.9)1
 Bones, n (%)1 (1.35)1 (4.8)0 (0)0.28
 Infection of contiguous sites, n (%)13 (17.6)4 (19.0)9 (17.0)1
 Disseminated infection, n (%)14 (18.9)0 (0)14 (26.4)0.007
Isolated fungi0.04
 Rhizopus genus, n (%)22 (29.7)2 (9.5)19 (35.8)
 R. oryzae, n (%)5 (6.8)  
 R. arrhizus, n (%)2 (2.7)  
 R. microspores, n (%)1 (1.4)  
 Rhizopus sp., n (%)14 (18.9)  
 Mucor genus, n (%)10 (13.5)5 (23.8)5 (9.4)
 M. circinelloides, n (%)3 (4.1)  
 Mucor sp., n (%)7 (9.6)  
 Rhizomucor genus, n (%)14 (18.9)2 (9.5)12 (22.6)
 R. pusillus, n (%)3 (4.1)  
 R. miehei, n (%)1 (1.4)  
 Rhizomucor sp., n (%)10 (13.5)  
 Lichtheimia genus, n (%)19 (25.7)8 (38.1)11 (20.8)
 L. corymbifera, n (%)14 (18.9)  
 Lichtheimia sp., n (%)5 (6.8)  
 Cunninghamella genus, n (%)1 (1.4)0 (0)1 (1.9)
 C. bertholletiae, n (%)1 (1.4)  
 Unclassified mucorales, n (%)9 (12.2)4 (19.0)5 (9.4)
Severity of infection
 SAPS2, mean (SD) a52 (22)36 (18)59 (19)< 0.001
 SOFA, mean (SD) a9 (4)6 (3)10 (4)< 0.001
 Respiratory2.0 (1.2)1.3 (1.3)2.2 (1.1)0.02
 Cardiovascular1.7 (1.8)1.0 (1.4)2.0 (1.8)0.01
 Renal1.1 (1.2)0.7 (1.0)1.3 (1.3)0.04
 Hematological2.0 (1.4)1.0 (1.2)2.4 (1.3)< 0.001
 Neurological1.2 (1.5)0.9 (1.4)1.3 (1.5)0.35
 Liver0.8 (0.9)0.6 (0.9)0.9 (0.9)0.24
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p-value (p < 0.05)
  2. ENT ear-nose-throat, HSCT hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, SAPS2 simplified Acute Physiological Score 2, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, SOT solid organ transplantation
  3. aResults are expressed as mean (SD) and compared with Student’s t test