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Table 1 Demographic and clinical baseline characteristics of the episodes

From: Early sepsis markers in patients admitted to intensive care unit with moderate-to-severe diabetic ketoacidosis

Variables All cohort
(n = 102)
Episodes with PBI
(n = 20)
Episodes without PBI
(n = 82)
p valuea
Age, year, median [IQR] 47 [29–58] 56 [48–64] 41 [28–57] 0.003
Males, n (%) 50 (49%) 9 (45%) 41 (50%)  
Body mass index, kg/m2, median [IQR] 23.65 [20.97–26.54] 24.49 [20.89–30.25] 23.63 [21.05–26.30]  
Inaugural diabetes ketoacidosis, n (%) 18 (18%) 7 (35%) 11 (13%) 0.045
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, n (%) 61 (60%) 7 (35%) 54 (66%) 0.021
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, n (%) 23 (23%) 6 (30%) 17 (21%) ns
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, n (%) 72 (71%) 9 (45%) 63 (77%) 0.006
Comorbidities
 Hypertension, n (%) 30 (29%) 5 (25%) 25 (31%)  
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 19 (19%) 4 (20%) 15 (18%)  
 Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 7 (7%) 2 (10%) 5 (6%)  
 Diabetic retinopathy, n (%) 27 (27%) 4 (20%) 23 (28%)  
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 24 (24%) 5 (25%) 19 (24%)  
 Smoking, n (%) 43 (42%) 5 (25%) 38 (46%) ns
 Alcohol, n (%) 24 (24%) 4 (20%) 20 (24%)  
Medications
 Insulin, n (%) 72 (71%) 9 (45%) 63 (77%) 0.006
 Metformin, n (%) 23 (23%) 6 (30%) 17 (21%) ns
 Sulfonylurea, n (%) 8 (8%) 3 (15%) 5 (6%) ns
 No antidiabetic, n (%) 18 (18%) 7 (35%) 11 (13%) 0.045
Triggering factors
 Poor compliance to antidiabetic treatment, n (%) 51 (50%)    
 No triggering factors, n (%) 21 (21%)    
 Infection, n (%) 20 (20%)    
 Others, n (%) 11 (11%)    
Clinical and biological data
 pH, median [IQR] 7.14 [7.05–7.24] 7.15 [7.02–7.27] 7.14 [7.05–7.22] ns
 Bicarbonate, mmol/L, median [IQR] 6.00 [3.50–10.40] 8.00 [4.15–10.55] 5.90 [3.30–10.30] ns
 Glycemia, mmol/L, median [IQR] 27.5 [26.1–30.6] 27.5 [25.1–29.0] 27.5 [26.1–30.9]  
 Ketonemia, mmol/L, median [IQR] 6.0 [5.1–6.9] 5.00 [3.95–5.93] 6.1 [5.3–7.0] 0.007
 SAPS II, median [IQR] 29 [21–40] 45 [35–58] 26 [20–36] < 0.001
Treatments and outcomes
 Antibiotics treatments, n (%) 45 (44%) 20 (100%) 25 (31%) < 0.001
 ICU length of stay, day, median [IQR] 2 [1–4] 7 [6–12] 2 [1–3] < 0.001
 Hospital length of stay, day, median [IQR] 9 [6–14] 20 [12–24] 8 [6–12] < 0.001
 Death, n (%) 2 (2%) 1 (5%) 1 (1%)  
  1. IQR interquartile range 25–75%, ICU intensive care unit, PBI proven bacterial infection, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II
  2. aSignificant difference (p < 0.05) between episodes with and without proven bacterial infection are reported in the “p value” column