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Table 3 Outcome for proximal and distal approach groups using intention-to-treat (ITT) data sets

From: Comparison of the proximal and distal approaches for axillary vein catheterization under ultrasound guidance (PANDA) in cardiac surgery patients susceptible to bleeding: a randomized controlled trial

Success rates (ITT analysis) Proximal group (n = 99) Distal group (n = 99) p value
Primary outcome
 First puncture success rate, n (%) 75 (75.8) 51 (51.5) < 0.001
Secondary outcomes
 Approach success rate, n (%) 93 (93.9) 83 (83.8) 0.04
 Overall success rate, n (%) 98 (99.0) 98 (99.0) 1.00
 Average number of attempts 1.3 ± 0.7 1.7 ± 0.9 0.002
 Access time (s) 20 (15, 28) 30 (19, 42) < 0.001
 Time to successful cannulation (s) 123 (112, 136) 142 (133, 156) < 0.001
Total complications, n (%) 9 (9.1) 11 (11.1) 0.81
 Major bleeding 0 0
 Minor bleeding 2 (2.0) 5 (5.1) 0.45
 Artery puncture 1 (1.0) 2 (2.0) 1.00
 Pneumothorax 2 (2.0) 0 0.50
 Nerve injuries 0 0
 Catheter misplacements 5 (5.1) 7 (7.1) 0.77
  1. Continuous data are presented as the mean (SD) or median (IQR). Categorical data are presented as counts (%)