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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis for favourable neurological outcome

From: Gasping during refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a prognostic marker for favourable neurological outcome following extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a retrospective study

Variables Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) n = 166 P value Adjusted odds ratioA (95% CI) n = 166a P value Adjusted odds ratioB (95% CI) n = 158a P value
Age (y) 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.003     
Male sex 0.82 (0.35–1.95) 0.655     
Cardiac arrest witnessed 1.07 (0.48–2.38) 0.876     
Bystander CPR attempt 2.70 (1.20–6.06) 0.016     
Initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm    0.62 (0.42–0.93) 0.02 0.63 (0.42–0.95) 0.028
 VF or pulseless VT 0.78 (0.28–2.19) 0.641     
 Pulseless electrical activity 0.96 (0.28–3.36) 0.954     
 Asystole 1.000 (ref.) 0.850     
Gasping during transportation by EMS 8.37 (3.64–19.27) <.001 9.52 (5.31–17.08) < .001 9.94 (5.49–18.00) < .001
Aetiology of cardiac arrest 0.59 (0.25–1.38) 0.225     
Epinephrine dose before hospital admission, mg 0.70 (0.54–0.92) 0.009     
Cardiac rhythm at admission
 ROSC 8.25 (1.58–43.13) 0.012     
 VF or pulseless VT 1.77 (0.54–5.79) 0.344     
 Pulseless electrical activity 0.72 (0.18–2.80) 0.633     
 Asystole 1.000 (ref.) 0.013     
Low-flow duration, min 0.98 (0.95–1.00) 0.075 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.34 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.510
No-flow duration, min, n = 115b 0.88 (0.80–0.98) 0.018     
pH at admission, n = 162c 9.88 (0.77–127.38) 0.079     
Serum lactate value at admission, n = 158c 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.783    1.03 (0.97–1.09) 0.399
Epinephrine administration after admission, mg 0.76 (0.57–1.02) 0.070     
Intra-aortic balloon pumping 1.36 (0.59–3.17) 0.471     
Percutaneous coronary intervention 0.94 (0.44–1.98) 0.865     
Therapeutic temperature management 1.62 (0.70–3.74) 0.261     
  1. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, EMS emergency medical service, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation
  2. aFor the multivariate logistic analysis, the initial cardiac rhythm, and low-flow time were selected as populated variables with reference to previous reports [13, 21], and gasping during transportation, which is the subject of this study, were also added (showing adjusted odds ratioA). In the adjusted odds ratioB, the serum lactate value for which the sample number missing was also entered in the multivariate logistic analysis
  3. bNo-flow time could be basically calculated in patients with witnessed cardiac arrest, while for some un-witnessed cardiac arrest patients, no-flow time could be estimated by relatives and/or bystanders. Accordingly, the number of patients with no-flow time was less than 166
  4. cThe number was less than 166 due to insufficient data