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Table 2 Causative diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in 123 HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU

From: Respiratory virus-associated infections in HIV-infected adults admitted to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure: a 6-year bicenter retrospective study (HIV-VIR study)

Patients All patients (n = 123) CD4 ≤ 200 (n = 66) CD4 > 200 (n = 57)
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 29 (23.6) 26 (39.4) 3 (5.3)
Other opportunistic lung infectiona 9 (7.3) 7 (10.6) 2 (3.5)
Non-opportunistic acute lung infection 59 (48) 22 (33.3) 37 (64.9)
Bacteria 53 21 32
 Streptococcus pneumoniae 14 9 5
 Other Streptococcus 3 1 2
 Staphylococcus aureus 9 5 4
 Legionella pneumophila 3 0 3
 Haemophilus influenzae 2 0 2
 Moraxella catarrhalis 1 0 1
 Klebsiella pneumoniae/Escherichia coli 2 0 2
 Other enterobacteria 5 1 4
 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9 4 5
 Other Gram-negative bacteria 1 1 0
 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 1 0 1
 Anaerobes 1 0 1
 Other bacteria 2 0 2
Virus 25 13 12
 Rhinovirus 8 6 2
 Adenovirus 2 1 1
 Coronavirus 1 1 0
 Influenza virus 6 2 4
 Human metapneumovirus 1 0 1
 Parainfluenza virus 3 2 1
 Respiratory syncytial virus 4 1 3
Bacteria–virus coinfection 12 8 4
Virus–virus coinfection 2 2 0
Undocumented 8 2 6
Non-infectious lung diseaseb 19 (15.4) 5 (7.6) 14 (24.6)
Extra-pulmonary causec 7 (5.7) 6 (9.1) 1 (1.8)
  1. Data are presented as number (%). CD4 refers to CD4 lymphocyte count (cells/µL)
  2. aOther opportunistic lung infections included CMV-associated pneumonia (n = 5) and pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 4)
  3. bNon-infectious lung diseases included acute exacerbation of COPD of non-infectious etiology (n = 6), cardiogenic lung edema without underlying lung agent (n = 5), cryptogenic hemoptysis (n = 1), intra-alveolar hemorrhage (n = 1); acute interstitial pneumonia (n = 2), Mendelson syndrome (n = 1), sickle cell disease (acute chest syndrome) (n = 1); neoplastic pleural effusion (n = 1) and Castleman disease (n = 1)
  4. cExtra-pulmonary causes included histoplasmosis (n = 1), Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis (n = 1), bacterial meningitis (n = 2), pyelonephritis (n = 2) and bacteremia of unknown origin (n = 1)