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Table 1 Patient’s characteristics at inclusion and during ICU stay

From: Protracted viral shedding and viral load are associated with ICU mortality in Covid-19 patients with acute respiratory failure

Variable Overall population (n = 129) Alive at ICU discharge (n = 85) Deceased at ICU discharge (n = 44) p value
Age (yr) 69 [59–77] 63 [58–73] 77 [68–82] < 0.001
Sex male 94 (73%) 56 (66%) 38 (86%) < 0.01
BMI (kg m−2) 28 [25–31] 28 [25–31] 28 [25–32] NS
Immunosuppression 9 (7%) 4 (5%) 5 (11%) NS
Time between 1st symptoms and ICU admission (day) 8 [6–11] 9 [6–12] 7 [5–10] NS
Time between 1st RT-PCR and ICU admission (day) 1 [0–4] 1 [0–4] 1 [0–2] NS
SAPS2 39 [32–52] 36 [28–46] 49 [39–53] < 0.001
SOFA score at ICU admission 4 [2–7] 4 [2–6] 5 [3–8] < 0.05
ARDS criteria 87 (67%) 51 (60%) 34 (81%) < 0.05
Respiratory support < 0.01
 Oxygen or NIV or HFNO only 42 (33%) 35 (41%) 7 (17%)
 IV at any time 87 (67%) 50 (59%) 34 (83%)
 ECMO 6 (5%) 1 (1%) 5 (12%) < 0.05
 Vasopressor at any time 86 (67%) 50 (59%) 34 (81%) < 0.05
 RRT at any time 24 (19%) 13 (15%) 13 (30%) NS
 ICU LOS 16 [5–31] 17 [5–31] 15 [5–31] NS
Antiviral treatment
 None 111 (86%) 73 (85%) 36 (86%) NS
 Immunoglobulin 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%)  
 Lopinavir-ritonavir 5 (4%) 4 (5%) 1 (2%)
 Lopinavir-ritonavir + IFN-β 2 (1%) 0 (0%) 2 (5%)  
 Hydroxychloroquine 5 (4%) 3 (4%) 2 (5%)  
 Remdesivir 5 (4%) 5 (6%) 0 (0%)  
  1. Values are median [1st quartile-3rd quartile] or count (percentage)
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, HFNO high flow nasal oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, IFN-β interferon β, IV invasive ventilation, LOS length of stay, NS not significant, RRT renal replacement therapy, RT-PCR real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, SAPS2 simplified acute physiology score