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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of intention-to-treat patients

From: Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Variable All patients (n = 56) Vitamin C (n = 27) Placebo (n = 29) P Value
Demographics
 Age, years 66.7 ± 12.7 66.3 ± 11.2 67.0 ± 14.3 0.86
 Gender, male, n, % 36(66.1) 15(55.6) 22(75.9) 0.09
 Height, cm 168.8 ± 6.6 167.0 ± 6.9 170.8 ± 5.8 0.08
 Weight, kg 62.0 ± 10.5 59.7 ± 11.2 64.4 ± 9.4 0.16
Centers
 Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, n, % 11(19.6) 5(18.5) 6(20.6) -
 Leishenshan (Thunder God Mountain) Hospital, n, % 39(69.6) 19(70.4) 20(69.0) -
 Taihe Hospital, n, % 6(10.7) 3(11.1) 3(10.3) -
General condition on randomization day
 Highest temperature,℃ 37.4 ± 1.0 37.3 ± 0.8 37.4 ± 1.1 0.65
 Highest heart rate, times/min 92.4 ± 18.5 95.3 ± 19.2 89.8 ± 17.8 0.27
 Lowest MAP, mmHg 91.0 ± 17.9 88.4 ± 16.6 93.4 ± 18.9 0.49
 Highest RR, times/min 25[20–36] 25[21–31] 24[20–30] 0.19
 Lowest SPO2, % 93[88–98] 93[81–98] 93[90–97] 0.93
 APACHE II score 13.5[10.3–15.8] 14.0[11.0–16.0] 13.0[9.5–15.0] 0.24
 GCS score 15.0[14.5–15.0] 15.0[13.0–15.0] 15.0[15.0–15.0] 0.75
Comorbidities, n, %
 Diabetes 17(30.4) 8(29.6) 9(32.1) 0.57
 Hypertension 25(44.6) 10(37.0) 15(51.7) 0.20
 Coronary heart disease 12(21.4) 4(14.80) 8(27.6) 0.33
 Chronic lung disease 3(5.4) 1(3.7) 2(6.9) 1.00
 Chronic renal failure 1(1.8) 1(3.7) 0(0.0) 0.48
 Malignant tumor 3(5.4) 3(11.1) 0(0.0) 0.11
 Nervous system diseases 11(20.4) 7(25.9) 4(13.8) 0.32
Median duration of symptoms before HDIVC therapy, days 17.0[11.0–25.0] 22.0[11.0–33.0] 15.0[11.0–22.0] 0.18
Other treatments during 7 days HDIVC therapy
 Corticosteroid use, n, % 18(32.1) 8(36.4) 10(38.5) 1.00
 Antibiotic, n, % 51(91.1) 24(92.3) 27 (96.4) 1.00
Net fluid balance, mL/24 h
 Day 1 190[-1487–662] 252[-252–810] 155[-520–499] 0.39
 Day 2 156[-349 -653] 192[-508–883] 121[-90 -577] 0.94
 Day 3 62[-703–768] -240[-1004 -233] 463[5–1351] 0.02
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, as median [interquartile range], or as numbers (percentage). Comparisons were performed using Student’s t test, Wilcoxon–Man–Whitney, Chi-square, or Fisher’s exact
  2. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, HDIVC high-dose intravenous vitamin C