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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with severe imported malaria

From: Changes in the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients treated for severe malaria in a referral French university intensive care unit from 2004 to 2017

CharacteristicsTotal2004–20122013–2017p value
Number of patients189*9891 
Gender, male119 (63)65 (66)54 (59)0.32
Age, median in years [IQR]45 [31; 56]45 [29; 56]45 [33; 57]0.33
Clinical history of previous malaria44 (23)16 (16)28 (31)0.02
Positive malaria serology89 (47)45 (66)44 (63)0.68
 Highly positive (IIFA > 1:1024)29 (15)17 (17)12 (13)0.36
 Positive (IIFA from 1:64 to 1:1024)60 (32)28 (29)32 (35).
 Negative (IIFA < 1:64)49 (26)23 (23)26 (29).
 Missing51 (27)30 (31)21 (23).
Ethnic group   < .01
 Caucasian51 (27)36 (37)15 (16) 
 African138 (73)62 (63)76 (84) 
  African living in France121 (64)53 (54)68 (75).
  African living in Africa17 (9)9 (9)8 (9).
Cause of travel   0.07
 Visiting friends and relatives/living in endemic areas136 (72)65 (66)71 (78) 
 Europeans travelling for tourism or work53 (28)33 (34)20 (22).
Complete anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis12 (6)6 (6)6 (7)0.89
Travel in West and Central Africa182 (96)92 (94)90 (99)0.07
Plasmodium falciparum184 (97)95 (97)89 (98)0.71
Time from symptoms onset to ICU admission, median in days [IQR]6 [4, 9]6 [4, 9]5 [3, 9]0.08
Treatment started at the time of ICU admission91 (48.9)47 (49.5)44 (48.4)0.43
Treatment started < 8 h before ICU admission59 (31.7)27 (28.4)32 (35.2) 
Treatment started < 24 h before ICU admission11 (5.9)8 (8.4)3 (3.3) 
Treatment started > 24 h before ICU admission25 (13.4)13 (13.7)12 (13.2) 
ICU length of stay, median [IQR]2 [2, 4]4 [2, 7]2 [2, 3]< .01
Hospital length of stay, median [IQR]7 [5, 13]8 [6, 15]7 [5, 10]0.05
SAPS II, median [IQR]25 [18; 36]28 [20; 36]22 [16; 35]0.03
SOFA, median [IQR]6 [4, 8]6 [5, 8]5 [4, 7]< .01
Mortality7 (4)5 (5)2 (2)0.29
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; IQR: interquartile range; IIFA: indirect immunofluorescence assay; SAPS: Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. * Except for malaria serology there was no missing data of the independent variables