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Table 4 Patients’ characteristics and severity criteria at ICU admission, according to outcome

From: Changes in the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients treated for severe malaria in a referral French university intensive care unit from 2004 to 2017

Patients characteristicsGood outcomePoor outcomeOR95% CIp value
Number of patients13653   
Gender, male85 (62)34 (64)0.96[0.48; 1.92]0.91
Age, median [IQR]45 [31; 57]48 [31; 54]1.01[0.98; 1.02]0.83
Clinical history of prior malaria39 (29)5 (9)0.32[0.11; 0.88]0.03
Positive malaria serology68 (64)21 (66)1.02[0.44; 2.38]0.96
Ethnic group
 Caucasian27 (20)24 (45)1 0.03
 African109 (80)29 (54)0.3[0.15; 0.6]< .01
  African living in France97 (71)24 (45)0.37[0.17; 0.76]< .01
  African living in Africa12 (9)5 (9)0.56[0.16; 1.92]0.36
Cause of travel
 Visiting friends and relatives/living in endemic areas106 (78)30 (57)0.42[0.2; 0.85]0.02
 Europeans travelling for tourism or work30 (22)23 (43)1  
Complete chemoprophylaxis11 (8)1 (2)0.2[0.02; 1.67]0.14
Time from symptoms onset to ICU admission, median in days [IQR]5 [4, 8]7 [4, 9]1.04[1.01; 1.19]0.02
Treatment started before ICU admission67 (49)31 (58)1.49[0.76; 2.94]0.24
Treatment administered
 Artesunate81 (60)15 (28)0.72[0.25; 2.1]0.55
 Intravenous quinine55 (40)38 (72)1  
SAPS II, median [IQR]21 [16, 30]41 [31; 56]1.14[1.09; 1.19]< .01
SOFA, median [IQR]5 [3, 6]8 [7, 12]1.92[1.55; 2.37]< .01
Parasitemia median in % [IQR]5.1 [1.6; 8.0]5.9 [1.5; 13.6]1.03[0.99; 1.07]0.16
Severity criteriaGood outcomePoor outcomeOR95% CIp value
Neurological failure38 (28)30 (57)3.98[1.94; 8.15]< .01
Respiratory failure2 (1)9 (17)23.61[4.38; 127]< .01
Cardio-circulatory failure17 (12)19 (36)10.62[3.67; 30.68]< .01
Bilirubin > 50 µmol/L49 (36)24 (45)1.32[0.67; 2.6]0.42
Serum creatinine > 265 µmol/L16 (12)29 (55)8.86[3.98; 19.71]< .01
Severe anemia: hemoglobin < 7 g/dL15 (11)7 (13)0.95[0.35; 2.59]0.92
Acidosis: pH < 7.355 (4)16 (30)11.53[3.71; 35.83]< .01
Hyperlactatemia > 2 mmol/L46 (34)31 (59)2.86[1.44; 5.69]< .01
Hyperparasitemia > 4%78 (57)34 (64)1.33[0.67; 2.64]0.42
Number of severity criteria, median [IQR]2 [1, 3]4 [2, 5]2.16[1.66; 2.81]< .01
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; IQR: interquartile range; SAPS: Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; NB: for quantitative variable OR value is given per point of increase of the variable