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Table 3 Determinants associated with ICU-acquired pneumonia using sub-distribution hazard ratio in univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Increased susceptibility to intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia in severe COVID-19 patients: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

Variables group Univariate Multivariate
SHR 95% CI p SHR 95% CI p
Group
 Bacterial pneumonia Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 COVID-19 1.52 1.17–1.98 0.001 2.18 1.2–3.98 0.011
 Viral pneumonia 0.8 0.46–1.42 0.46 0.76 0.43–1.36 0.35
 Male gender 1.67 1.23–2.27 0.001 1.55 1.14–2.12 0.005
 Obesity 1.25 0.96–1.63 0.094    
 Immunosuppression 0.68 0.5–0.93 0.02    
 Admission SAPS2, per point 0.99 0.99–1 0.06    
 Admission SOFA, per point 0.97 0.95–1.01 0.15    
 COPD 0.65 0.45–0.97 0.032    
 Cancer 0.73 0.52–1.04 0.081    
 Prone positioning 1.03 1–1.07 0.075    
 Vasopressors 1.42 0.97–2.08 0.073    
 Blood transfusion 1.21 0.93–1.57 0.15    
  Conventional respiratory device 0.39 0.21–0.73 0.003    
 Antimicrobial treatment 0.46 0.24–0.9 0.023    
 ARDS 1.61 1.39–2.37  < 0.001 1.84 1.25–2.72 0.002
 Duration of MV prior to VAP, days 1.02 1.02–1.04  < 0.001 1.027 1.01–1.04  < 0.001
  1. SAPS2, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; MV, mechanical ventilation. All covariates were analysed at baseline except for mechanical ventilation that was evaluated as time-dependent covariate